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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The submucosal glands are thought to be the primary source of the mucus overlying the primate trachea and conducting airways. This study characterizes the development of submucosal glands in the trachea of the rhesus monkey. Tracheas from 46 age-dated fetal, 8 postnatal and 3 adult rhesus were fixed in glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde and slices processed for electron microscopy. The earliest (70 days gestational age (DGA)) indication of gland development was the projection of a group of closely packed electron lucent cells with few organelles and small pockets of glycogen into the submucosa. This configuration was observed up to 110 DGA. In fetuses younger than 87 DGA it was present almost exclusively over cartilaginous areas. Between 80 and 140 DGA, a cylinder of electron lucent cells projected into the submucosal connective tissue perpendicular to the surface. In fetuses younger than 100 DGA, it was restricted to cartilaginous areas. By 90 DGA, some glycogen containing cells in proximal regions contained apical cored granules. By 106 DGA, cells in proximal areas contained apical electron lucent granules. More distal cells had abundant GER and electron dense granules. The most distal cells resembled the undifferentiated cells at younger ages. Ciliated cells were present in the most proximal portions of glands at 120 DGA. This glandular organization was found in older animals, including adults, with the following changes: (1) abundance of proximal cells with electron lucent granules increased; (2) abundance of distal cells with electron dense granules increased; and (3) abundance of distal cells with abundant glycogen and few organelles decreased. We conclude that submucosal gland development in the rhesus monkey: (1) is primarily a prenatal process; (2) occurs first over cartilage; (3) continues into the postnatal period; and (4) involves secretory cell maturation in a proximal to distal sequence with mucous cells differentiating before serous cells.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined histochemically (light microscopy-LM) and cytochemically (electron microscopy-EM) the secretory epithelial cells in the tracheobronchial mucosa of sheep. Six morphologically distinct, granule-containing cells have been described, on the basis of their morphology and airway distribution: four mucous (M1-M4), serous (SC), and Clara (CC). Stereological and morphometric data indicated that M3, M4, SC, and CC were distinctly different from each other and from M1 and M2 cells. Mucous cells M1 and M2 differed in granule morphology. Samples of tracheas, sixth-generation bronchi, distal bronchi, and terminal bronchioles of 18 adult sheep were examined. At the LM level, methacrylate sections were reacted with an alcian blue (pH 2.5), periodic acid Schiff (PAS) sequence to differentiate neutral from acidic glycoconjugates (GC), and a high-iron diamine (HID), alcian blue sequence to differentiate sulfated from nonsulfated (sialated) GC. At the EM level the periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide localized hexose-rich, neutral GC. Dialyzed iron (DI) and high-iron diamine localized carboxylated and sulfated GC, respectively. Granules of all but Clara cells were PAS-positive. All mucous cells contained acidic groups, but only M1 and M4 cells had LM-detectable sulfated GC. At the ultrastructural level, minimal but discernible HID and LID reaction product was observed on granule profiles of M2, M3, and SC, indicating acidic and sulfated GC not detected at the LM level. Histochemically, the sheep tracheobronchial epithelium was more similar to that of humans than some other examined mammalian species.
    Additional Material: 40 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins - DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (gaINAc), BSAI (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), UEA I (Ulex europeus) - for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2 -fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in lumminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. Inp proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of 〈 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells containde weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.
    Additional Material: 24 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the present study was to characterize ultrastructurally the nonolfactory nasal epithelium of a nonhuman primate, the bonnet monkey. Nasal cavities from eight subadult bonnet monkeys were processed for light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nonolfactory epithelium covered the majority of the nasal cavity and consisted of squamous (SE), transitional (TE), and respiratory epithelium (RE). Stratified SE covered septal and lateral walls of the nasal vestibule, while ciliated pseudostratified RE covered most of the remaining nasal cavity. Stratified, nonciliated TE was present betwen SE and RE in the anterior nasal cavity. This epithelium was distinct from the other epithelial populations in abundance and types of cells present. TE was composed of lumenal nonciliated cuboidal cells, goblet cells, small mucous granule (SMG) cells, and basal cells, while RE contained ciliated cells, goblet cells, SMG cells, basal cells, and cells with intracytoplasmic lumina lined by cilia and microvilli. TE and RE contained similar numbers of total epithelial cells and basal cells per millimeter of basal lamina. TE was composed of more SMG cells but fewer goblet cells compared to RE. We conclude that nonolfactory nasal epithelium in the bonnet monkey is complex with distinct regional epithelial populations which must be recognized before pathologic changes within this tissue can be assessed adequately.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2576
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Airway inflammation, including neutrophil influx is commonly seen in human pulmonary diseases. We developed an in vitro system where the adherence of neutrophils to bronchial epithelial cells could be examined. Primary cultures of nonhuman primate brenchial epithelial cells or transformed BEAS human bronchial epithelial cells were grown to confluence on collagen-coated culture plates. Cells were cocultured for 30 min following the addition of human neutrophils and PMA. Cultures were then inverted, fixed with methanol, and adherent neutrophils labeled with 1B4 mouse monoclonal anti-human neutrophil antibody followed by fluoresceinlabeled sheep anti-mouse IgG. Slides were examined using fluorescence microscopy. The 1B4 antibody allowed rapid identification of neutrophils adherent to the epithelial cell monolayers, which were not labeled by this technique. PMA increased the adherence of neutrophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Pretreatment of the neutrophils with anti-CD11/CD18 antibodies prevented the increase in PMA-stimulated adherence. We conclude that PMA-stimulated adherence to airway epithelial cells is in part dependent on the neurrophil CD11/CD18 adherence complex.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2576
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The respiratory epithelium is often exposed to oxidant gases, including ozone from photochemical smog and toxic oxygen metabolites released from neutrophils recruited in conditions of airway inflammation. We evaluated DNA single strand break formation by alkaline elution as a measure of oxidant-induced DNA damage to bronchial epithelial cells. Human AdenoSV-40-transformed bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS), subclone R1.4 or nonhuman primate bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in growth factor supplemented Ham's F12 medium on polycarbonate filters. DNA was labeled by incubation with [3H]thymidine. Cells were incubated for 1 h in HBSS or HBSS and increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cells incubated in H2O2 demonstrated dose-dependent increases in strand break formation, and BEAS cells were more sensitive to H2O2-induced injury than primary bronchial epithelial cells. The addition of catalase or preincubation of cells with the iron chelator desferoxamine prevented H2O2-induced strand breakage. DNA strand break formation may be an important mechanism of oxidant injury in respiratory epithelial cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Gene therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) will require the safe transfer of CFTR cDNA to airway epithelia in vivo. We showed previously that a recombinant adenovirus, Ad2/ CFTR–1, expresses CFTR in vitro. As adenovirus rarely integrates, treatment will require repeated vector administration. We ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study was designed to characterize the ultrastructure and carbohydrate content of secretory cells in submucosal glands of rhesus monkey and to compare this information with that available for humans. The tracheas from five adult monkeys were fixed by airway infusion, processed, and embedded for both light and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical stains including alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff, dialyzed iron, and high-iron diamine-alcian blue were applied to serial glycol methacrylate sections. The cytochemical stains used included periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate, high-iron diamine, and low-iron diamine. The glandular secretory cells were divided into four categories based on ultrastructure and location within the gland. Cells in the first category resembled the mucous cell of the surface epithelium and were located in ducts most proximal to the tracheal lumen. The second category consisted of cells that were located in distal ducts and contained large electron-lucent granules. The granules in both of these cell groups contained material that was periodate-reactive and sulfated. Cells of the third category contained granules that were either electron-lucent or electron-dense. These cells, which were difficult to characterize as either serous or mucous, were located in secretory tubules and acini and contained periodate-reactive glyco-conjugates that were either sulfated or nonsulfated. The last category consisted mainly of cells that contained electron-dense granules that were lightly periodate-reactive or a few that were unreactive with any of the cytochemical methods used here. We concluded from this study that 1) the submucosal glands of rhesus monkey contain secretory cells with a variety of morphologies; 2) the secretory cells, which in some cases are not easily identified as mucous or serous, contain material that is periodate-reactive and sulfated, contain material that is periodate-reactive only, or contain no carbohydrate as detected by the cytochemical methods used; and 3) the submucosal glands of rhesus monkey trachea resemble those described in human airways.
    Additional Material: 20 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 210 (1984), S. 293-302 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Three types of nonciliated secretory epithelial cells contribute material to the mucous lining of pulmonary airways: mucous cells, serous cells, and Clara cells. Extensive interspecies variation exists, especially between humans and laboratory mammals, with regard to occurrence, distribution, and granule content of these secretory cells. This study was designed to characterize one aspect of these differences in one species of nonhuman primate, the rhesus monkey. The complex carbohydrates of secretory granules present in the tracheal epithelium were characterized cytochemically. The tracheas of seven monkeys were fixed by airway infusion, processed, and embedded for both light and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical stains including Alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff, dialyzed iron, and high iron diamine-Alcian blue were applied to serial methacrylate sections. The mucous cells were the predominant secretory cell type of the trachea and contained periodate-reactive sulfated glycoconjugates. The mucous secretory granules, as resolved with the electron microscope, consisted of a mesh or matrix surrounding a biphasic core. The matrix was stained by all cytochemical reactions used, which included periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate, dialyzed iron, low iron diamine, and high iron diamine. The biphasic core also reacted with the four stains, but most intensely with high iron diamine. We conclude from this study that (1) the mucous secretory granule contains carbohydrate throughout all phases of the granule, (2) the mucous granule contains periodate-reactive sulfated glycoconjugates, with sulfate esters concentrated in the core of the granule, and (3) the mucous granules of rhesus trachea morphologically and cytochemically resemble those described in human airways.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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