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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  50. Kongress für Allgemeinmedizin und Familienmedizin; 20160929-20161001; Frankfurt am Main; DOC16degam167 /20160919/
    Publication Date: 2016-09-19
    Keywords: Ambulante Geriatrische Komplexbehandlung ; Prävention ; Selbstständigkeit ; ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The sulfate and the chloride self-exchange fluxes were determined by measuring the rate of the tracer efflux from radioactively labeled human red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts. The concentration dependence and the pH-dependence of the sulfate self-exchange flux were studied. In addition, the effects of some monovalent and divalent anions on the sulfate and the chloride self-exchange fluxes were investigated. The sulfate self-exchange fluxes saturate, exhibiting a concentration maximum at sulfate concentrations between 100 and 300mm (25°C). The position of the concentration maximum depends upon pH. At high sulfate concentrations a self-inhibition of the flux becomes apparent. The apparent half-saturation constant and the apparent self-inhibition constant at pH 7.2 were 30mm and 400mm respectively. Within the pH range of 6.3–8.5, both constants decreased with increasing pH. No saturation of the sulfate self-exchange flux was observed if the sulfate concentration was raised by substituting sulfate for isoosmotic amounts of a second salt (NaCl, NaNO3, Na-acetate, Na-lactate, Na-succinate or Na2HPO4). Red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts display the same pattern of concentration responsiveness. The sulfate self-exchange flux exhibits a pH-maximum at about pH 6.2 (37°C). The location of the pH-maximum is little affected by variations of the sulfate concentration. The logarithmic plots (log $$\vec J_{SO_4 } $$ vs. pH) revealed that the flux/pH relation can be approximated by two straight lines. The slopes of the alkaline branches of the flux/pH curves range from −0.55 to −0.86, the slopes of the branches of the curves range from 0.08 to 1.14 and were strongly affected by changes of the sulfate concentrations. The apparent pK's obtained from the alkaline and from the acidic branches of the flux/pH curves were about 7.0 and 6.0, respectively. Intact red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts display the same type of pH-dependency of the sulfate self-exchange flux. The sulfate self-exchange flux is competitively inhibited by nitrate, chloride, acetate, oxalate and phosphate. The chloride self-exchange flux is competitively inhibited by thiocyanate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate. The inhibition constants for the various anion species increase in the given sequence. The results of our studies indicate that the sulfate self-exchange flux is mediated by a “two-site transport mechanism” consisting either of a mobile carrier or a two-site pore. The experiments reported in this paper do not permit distinguishing between both transport mechanisms. The similarities of the sulfate and the chloride self-exchange flux and the mutual competition between sulfate and chloride point to a common transport system for both anion species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Antipsychotics ; Caudate-putamen ; Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ; Nigrostriatal ; Haloperidol ; Clozapine ; Neuroleptics ; 3-Methoxytryramine ; Dopamine release
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The release and metabolism of dopamine in the mouse caudate-putamen were determined after the oral administration of antipsychotic drugs at doses equal to or sixfold greater than the ED50 dose for their inhibition of apomorphine-induced climbing. Dopamine release was equated with concentrations of 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and metabolism was equated with concentrations of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels. Like the D-1 antagonists SCH 23390 and SKF 83566, most antipsychotic agents with an atypical preclinical profile suggestive of low extrapyramidal symptomatology (CGS 10746B, flumezapine, CL 77328, rimcazole, clozapine, RMI 81582, and fluperlapine) never increased dopamine release and produced variable increases in dopamine metabolism. Other atypical antipsychotics (thioridazine, mesoridazine, melperone) increased dopamine release at only one dose tested but increased dopamine metabolism at most doses. Antipsychotic agents associated with extrapyramidal side effects (setoperone, perlapine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and metoclopramide) increased dopamine release and metabolism at almost every dose tested. Thus, atypical antipsychotics increase the metabolism but not release of dopamine at behaviorally effective doses. The resemblance of these minimal effects on dopamine release to those obtained with D-1 antagonists that also have an atypical preclinical profile suggests that a mechanism related to D-1 receptor antagonism may contribute to the action of atypical antipsychotics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0005-2736
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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