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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Untersuchung von Lectinen ; Reaktionsmechanismus ; Laser-Nephelometrie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1591-9528
    Keywords: Ammonia Determination ; Liver ; Ammoniumbestimmung ; Leber
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 1. Drei Methoden zur Bestimmung der Ammoniumkonzentration im Blut wurden vergleichend geprüft: a) Die direkte photometrische Bestimmung mit Phenol-Hypochlorit (Müller-Beissenhirtz u.Keller). b) Die Isolierung des Ammoniums durch Adsorption an einem Kationenaustauscher und Bestimmung im Eluat mit Phenol-Hypochlorit (Modifikation der Methode nachHutchinson u.Labby). c) Die enzymatische Bestimmung mit der Glutamatdehydrogenase-Reaktion (Modifikation der Methode nachSchmidt u.Schwarz). Die Originalvorschriften wurden gering modifiziert, insbesondere wurde bei den Verfahren b und c das hämolysierte Blut durch Ultrafiltration enteiweißt. 2. Bei 10 Personen ohne Anhalt für Lebererkrankungen und bei 18 Kranken mit chronischer Hepatitis oder Lebercirrhose wurde die Ammoniumkonzentration im venösen Nüchternblut mit den drei Methoden gleichzeitig bestimmt. Bei der Gruppe der Leberkranken wurden die Bestimmungen nach peroraler Gabe von 5 g Ammoniumacetat wiederholt. 3. Die Ammoniumbestimmung mit der direkt photometrischen Methode ergibt in allen drei Untersuchungsgruppen (Gesunde, Leberkranke, Leberkranke mit Ammoniumacetatbelastung) eine signifikant höhere mittlere Ammoniumkonzentration als bei Bestimmung mit den beiden anderen Verfahren. Auch die Differenz der Ammoniumkonzentration vor und nach Belastung mit Ammoniumacetat ist bei Bestimmung mit der direkt photometrischen Methode signifikant größer als mit den anderen Methoden. Adsorptionsmethode und enzymatische Methode ergeben keine signifikanten Unterschiede der Ammoniumkonzentration in den einzelnen Untersuchungsgruppen. Auch die mit den beiden Verfahren gemessene Zunahme der Ammoniumkonzentration nach Ammoniumacetatbelastung ist nicht signifikant different. 4. Die methodische Streuung ist bei der Adsorptionsmethode am größten, bei der enzymatischen Methode am geringsten. Bei allen drei Verfahren werden dem Plasma zugesetzte Ammoniumionen quantitativ wiedergefunden. 5. Wegen ihrer Spezifität, der hohen Empfindlichkeit, der geringen methodischen Streuung und der kurzen Analysendauer ist die enzymatische Bestimmungsmethode in Verbindung mit der Enteiweißung durch Ultrafiltration das Verfahren der Wahl für die Ammoniumbestimmung im Blut. 6. Da zwei auf völlig verschiedenen Prinzipien beruhende Bestimmungsverfahren — Adsorptionsmethode und enzymatische Methode — nicht signifikant verschiedene Werte der Ammoniumkonzentration im Blut ergeben, wird durch diese beiden Methoden mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit die tatsächliche Ammoniumkonzentration im Blut erfaßt.
    Notes: Summary 1. Three different methods for the determination of ammonia in blood are comparised: a) Method for the direct colorimetric determination by phenol-hypochloritereaction (Müller-Beissenhirtz andKeller). b) Cation exchange method quantitating the ammonia in eluate by the phenolhypochlorite-reaction (Hutchison andLabby). c) Enzymatic method by glutamatedehydrogenase-reaction (Schwarz andSchmidt). In the case of the cation exchange method and the enzymatic method the blood was deproteinized by ultrafiltration. 2. The concentration of ammonia in the venous blood of 10 fasting patients without hepatitis disease was determined. Moreover we evaluated 18 patients with chronical hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver for concentration of blood ammonia fasting as well as after oral provisions of 5 g ammoniumacetate. The determinations by the three methods were performed simultaneously. 3. The comparison between the mean values of all determinations didn't demonstrate a statistical difference between the cation exchange method and the enzymatic method. All mean values of the direct colorimetric method reached a statistical higher level than those of both of the other methods. There was no statistical difference between the cation exchange method and the enzymatic method in respect of the mean increase of the values after provisions of ammoniumacetate, but both of the methods differed statistically from the more increasing values of the direct colorimetric determination. 4. The cation exchange method shows the highest methodical deviation; in case of the enzymatic method the methodical deviation is low. 5. Because of its specifity, sensitivity, low methodical deviation and rapidity the enzymatic method proves the most secure method for the determination of the ammonia concentration in blood. 6. Since the values of ammonia concentration measured with the cation exchange method and the enzymatic method are not significant different and since the two methods are based on very different principles, the values are probably corresponding with the real ammonia concentration in blood.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
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    Clinical and experimental medicine 119 (1952), S. 286-300 
    ISSN: 1591-9528
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Bei der osmotischen Hämolyse wird Cholesterin von der Erythrocytenmembran in das umgebende hypotonische Medium abgegeben. Der Cholesterinverlust der Membran steigt mit dem Grad der Hypotonie. 2. Der Cholesterinverlust wird erhöht, wenn die Erythrocyten länger als 1 Std auf 500 erwärmt werden. 3. Je mehr Cholesterin von der Zellmembran abgelöst wird, um so mehr sinkt die Resistenz der Zelle und um so mehr steigert sich die Permeabilität der Membran für Hämoglobin. Resistenz und Permeabilität hängen aber nicht nur vom Cholesteringehalt der Zellmembran ab. 4. Intracelluläre Faktoren können den Cholesterinverlust der Zellmembran beeinflussen. Die Abhängigkeit dieses Vorganges vom Stoffwechsel der Zelle wird diskutiert. 5. Wenn Blutplasma mehrere Tage bei 370 unter sterilen Bedingungen auf die Erythrocyten einwirkt, wird der Cholesterinverlust beträchtlich gesteigert; Cholesterinablösung und Hämoglobinaustritt gehen auffallend parallel. Die Zellen nehmen Kugelform an, ihre Resistenz sinkt und die Permeabilität der Membran für Hämoglobin wird erhöht. 6. Die in vitro beobachteten und gemessenen Vorgänge können auch beim Blutabbau in vivo von Bedeutung sein und die Annahme der humoralen Blutzerstörung stützen.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: prostaglandin E2 ; gastric mucosa ; gastric ulcer ; chronic uremia ; man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PGE2-like immunoactivity in mucosal specimens from gastric corpus and antrum was measured in individuals with chronic uremia or without renal diseases in absence or presence of gastric ulcerations and in healthy subjects. Regardless the group of patients, compared to normal mucosa, a significant decrease in PGE2-like immunoactivity (50–70%) was found in mucosa from atrophic, but not from superficial gastritis. Whenever patients of the control group or patients with renal diseases suffered from ulcers, PGE2-like immunoactivity, compared to nonulcer subjects, revealed a decrease of about 60–70% in the nonulcerated mucosa. Compared to nonulcerated mucosa, the tissue of the ulcer rim in all patients with gastric ulcer showed a relative increase in PGE2-like immunoactivity, eg, PGE2-like immunoactivity was twice as high in tissue from the ulcer rim. The outpout of PGE2-like immunoactivity into the gastric juice of subjects without renal diseases was comparable to that found in patients with chronic uremia in both basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions. We therefore conclude that gastric mucosal formation is probably not influenced by chronic uremia.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: leukocyte scintigraphy ; technetium-99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine ; acute pancreatitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The infiltration of leukocytes has been linked to the pathophysiology of complicated or severe pancreatitis. We have tested the ability of leukocyte scintigraphy using technetium-99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine (HM-PAO) as label to demonstrate the localization of leukocytes in the pancreas during acute pancreatitis. Twenty-eight patients with acute pancreatitis (eight with biliary, 13 with alcoholic, and seven with unknown origin) were studied with leukocyte scintigraphy using planar imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Fourteen patients had a mild (group I), 11 a severe (group II), and three a lethal outcome (group III) of pancreatitis. All patients of group III, six of group II, and two of group I had a positive leukocyte scan. Thus, the sensitivity of leukocyte scintigraphy for the detection of a lethal course, of acute pancreatitis was 100%, of a severe course 54%, and of a severe or lethal course 64%. The specificity of a negative scan for a mild pancreatitis was 86%. Comparison of the results of leukocyte scintigraphy with those of contrast enhanced CT showed that six of eight patients with pancreatic necrosis in CT had a positive leukocyte scan, but only five of 20 patients without detectable pancreatic necrosis in CT. In summary, leukocyte infiltration into the pancreas during pancreatitis can be demonstrated by noninvasive leukocyte scintigraphy using technetium-99m-HM-PAO as label. A correlation between the severity of the disease and leukocyte infiltration exists.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease ; Crohn's disease ; ulcerative colitis ; PMN-elastase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PMN-elastase is a proteinase released by activated neutrophils. PMN-elastase was determined in two independent populations with inflammatory bowel disease. In an unselected population of 70 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease and 24 patients with ulcerative colitis with different degrees of disease activity plasma PMN-elastase levels were statistically significantly higher in patients with active than in patients with inactive disease [Crohn's disease: 80.5±33.2 ng/ml vs 60.1±24.6 ng/ml (means±sd),P=0.0017; ulcerative colitis: 98.2±54.9 ng/ml vs 59.2±16.8 ng/ml,P=0.026]. PMN-elastase levels in feces were also higher in patients with active Crohn's disease (23.6±15.3 ng/g vs 13.6±12.5 ng/g,P=0.0021) and active ulcerative colitis (46.5±60.5 ng/g vs 20.2±25.0 ng/g,P=0.46), but the difference reached significance only in Crohn's disease. Correlation of disease activity and PMN-elastase in individual patients showed a statistically significant correlation between plasma and fecal elastase concentrations and disease activity in ulcerative colitis (plasma:r=0.72,P〈0.001; feces:r=0.423,P〈0.001) but not fecal elastase concentrations (r=0.0083,P=0.485) correlated significantly with disease activity. Plasma PMN-elastase correlated weakly with fecal PMN-elastase levels in Crohn's disease (r=0.431,P〈0.01) and in ulcerative colitis (r=0.515,P=0.05). In 28 patients with highly active Crohn's disease [median severity activity index (SAI) 203] and 11 patients with highly active ulcerative colitis [median Rachmilewitz index (RI) 14] studied before and four weeks after steroid therapy, treatment lowered the median SAI to 140 and the median RI to 4.5. Mean plasma elastase concentrations decreased concomitantly from 83±44.9 ng/ml to 61.8±25.8 (P=0.0035) in patients with Crohn's disease and from 110±49.5 to 71.6±28.8 ng/ml (P=0.0069) in patients with ulcerative colitis. In conclusion, there is a release of PMN-elastase in active IBD, which can be detected in plasma as well as in feces. Plasma elastase levels reflect disease activity in patients with IBD. The variation of the data and the large overlap between different groups, however, strongly reduce the clinical value.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: acute pancreatitis ; granulocyte elastase ; C-reactive protein ; α1-antitrypsin, α2-macroglobulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Complexes of granulocyte elastase and α1-antitrypsin are markers for granulocyte activation. In 75 patients with acute pancreatitis these complexes were immunologically determined daily in plasma during the first week of hospitalization. Patients were classified into three groups: mild pancreatitis (I, ≤1 complication, N=34), severe pancreatitis (II, ≥2 complications, N= 29), lethal outcome (III, N=12). Initially, granulocyte elastase (mean±sem) was lower in group I (348±39 μg/liter) as compared to groups II (897±183 μg/l) and III (799±244 μg/liter), P〈0.001 for I vs II + III. Initial elastase concentrations 〉400 μg/liter were consistent with a severe or fatal course of the disease but did not distinguish between severe and lethal pancreatitis. In patients with mild or severe disease, mean elastase concentrations decreased continuously during the following days (197±15 μg/liter in mild cases, 325±30 μg/liter in severe cases at day 7). In patients with lethal disease, however, mean elastase concentrations even increased at day 2 and remained higher than 700 μg/liter during the observation period. At days 1 and 2 the predictive value for severe or lethal disease of raised (〉400 μg/liter) elastase concentrations [positive predictive value (PPV) 82%, negative predictive value (NPV) 81%] was better than that of elevated (〉100 mg/liter) C-reactive protein (PPV 73%, NPV 73%), elevated (〉4.0 g/liter) α1-antitrypsin (PPV 59%, NPV 50%), or decreased (〈1.5 g/liter) α2-macroglobulin (PPV 82%, NPV 67%). When the time course of the concentrations of the acute-phase proteins was studied, it was found that rises of granulocyte elastase were followed by elevated C-reactive protein levels after one day, by elevated α1-antitrypsin levels after two days and by decreased α2-macroglobulin levels after three to four days. We conclude that granulocyte elastase is a good early marker for the severity of acute pancreatitis. Compared with elevated levels of C-reactive protein and α1-antitrypsin release of granulocyte elastase reflects an event that precedes acute-phase protein induction.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4986
    Keywords: Vitamin A ; retinol ; N-linked oligosaccharides ; membrane glycoproteins ; dipeptidylpeptidase IV
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of vitamin A deficiency onN-linked oligosaccharides of membrane glycoproteins was studied in rat liver in order to evaluate the suggested role of retinol in proteinN-glycosylation. First, oligosaccharides of newly synthesized glycoproteins from rough endoplasmic reticulum of vitamin A deficient liver were compared with that of pair-fed controls. Oligosaccharides were metabolically labelled withd-[2-3H]mannose, released from the glycoproteins with endoglycosidase H, purified by reversed phase HPLC and ion exchange chromatography, and were reduced with sodium borohydride. HPLC fractionation of the oligosaccharide alditols showed that the glycoproteins carried mainly four oligosaccharide species, Glc1Man9GlcNAc2, Man9GlcNAc2, Man8GlcNAc2 and Man7GlcNAc2, in identical relative amounts in the vitamin A deficient and the control tissue. In particular, no increase in the proportion of short chain oligosaccharides was noted in vitamin A deficient liver. Second, the number ofN-linked oligosaccharides was estimated in dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV), a major glycoprotein constituent of the hepatic plasma membrane, comparing the newly synthesized glycoprotein from rough endoplasmic reticulum and the mature form of DPP IV from the plasma membrane. No evidence was obtained that retinol deficiency caused incomplete glycosylation of this membrane glycoprotein. From these data, the suggested role of retinol as a cofactor involved in the synthesis ofN-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins must be questioned.
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