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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of a bombesin-like immunoreactive peptide in the avian gastro-intestinal tract was analysed by combined radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts showed that the largest quantities of bombesin-like immunoreactivity were present in the proventriculus (64.5±6.0 pmol/g) with smaller but still considerable amounts in the gizzard (40.0±6.0 pmol/g). Immunocytochemically the extractable bombesin-like immunoreactivity was localised in numerous endocrine cells. These, in the proventriculus, were found mainly in the deeper layers of the mucosa. Further study of these cells by the semi-thin/thin technique revealed the presence of characteristic secretory granules. The functional name BN is proposed for this cell type.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence of bombesin (gastrin-releasing peptide, GRP)-like immunoreactivity in mucosal endocrine cells of human fetal lung is well established. In this study we have investigated the localisation of pro-GRP mRNA and GRP gene products and compared the distribution and levels of extractable GRP-and C-terminal flanking peptide of human pro-GRP-like immunoreactivity in order to verify synthesis and to investigate their coexistence and molecular forms. Human fetal lungs (14 to 23 weeks gestation) were immunostained, and extracts were assayed using regionspecific antisera to pro-GRP. Additional antisera to chromogranin and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) were used for immunostaining by the peroxidase anti-peroxidase technique and for double immunofluorescence staining using antisera raised in two species. Immunoreactivity for both bombesin (GRP) and flanking peptide was seen mainly in the same endocrine cells, but more cells were stained with antisera to flanking peptide than with antiserum to bombesin (GRP). In situ hybridisation showed that pro-GRP mRNA was present and thus synthesis of the peptides was taking place. Endocrine cells and nerve fibres were PGP 9.5-immunoreactive, and a subset of cells was immunoreactive for bombesin gene products. Radioimmunoassay and chromatography show that pro-GRP is present in both the uncleaved and cleaved forms, and, in agreement with immunocytochemistry results, that an excess of C-terminal peptide of pro-GRP is detectable. It is therefore concluded that GRP-like peptides and flanking peptide are co-local-ised in human pulmonary endocrine cells, but the latter is found in larger concentrations than free GRP. Thus GRP-like peptides may be secreted separately from the flanking peptide(s) of pro-GRP. Furthermore PGP 9.5 appears to be a useful marker for endocrine cells in the respiratory epithelium of human fetal lung.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary GAWK is a recently discovered peptide isolated from extracts of human pituitary gland and subsequently shown to be identical to sequence 420–493 of human chromogranin B. The distribution of this peptide was studied in human gut, pancreas, adrenal and pituitary glands using antisera to two portions of the 74 amino acid peptide (sequences 1–17 and 20–38). In addition, the co-existence of GAWK immunoreactivity with other peptides and chromogranin B was investigated using comparative immunocytochemistry. In the gut, GAWK was localised mainly to serotonin-containing cells of the mucosal epithelium, where electron microscopy showed it to be stored in typical electron-dense (250 nm diameter) granules, and to a moderate population of nerve fibres in the gut wall. Considerable quantities of GAWK-like immunoreactivity were measured in the gut, up to 36.3±18 pmol GAWK 1–17/g wet weight of tissue (mean±SEM) and 12.4±2.9 pmol GAWK 20–38/g. Chromatography of gut extracts revealed several GAWK-like immunoreactive peaks. GAWK-like immunoreactivity was also detected in endocrine cells of pancreas, pituitary gland and adrenal medulla, where the highest concentrations of GAWK-like immunoreactivity were measured (GAWK 1–17 2071.8±873.2 and GAWK 20–38 1292.7±542.7 pmol/g). Endocrine cells containing GAWK-like immunoreactivity were found also to be immunoreactive for chromogranin B. Our results define a discrete distribution of GAWK immunoreactivity in human endocrine cells and nerves and provide morphological support for the postulated precursor-product relationship between chromogranin B and GAWK. Details of the functions of this peptide are awaited.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A combination of immunocytochemistry at light and electron microscopic levels, direct radioimmunoassay and measurement after gel chromatography have been used to identify and characterise a glucagon-like peptide detected in human foetal stomach. Immunocytochemistry, with region specific antisera, demonstrated that the glucagon-containing cells were indistinguishable from pancreatic A cells. Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts confirmed the presence of significant quantities of glucagon, mean 21 pmol/g wet weight (range 14–29) in 16–26 week old foetuses, increasing to 41 pmol/g wet weight (range 31–52) in 33–30 week old foetuses and after gel chromatography the peptide was found to elute at the same position as standard porcine glucagon. It is apparent, therefore, that the human foetal fundus contains significant quantities of true pancreatic-type glucagon.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the palate of rat, cat and monkey was studied using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. CGRP-containing nerve fibres were found, in all species studied, to form a rich plexus in the subepithelial and submucous layers, around excretory ducts and blood vessels. A small number of CGRP-containing nerve fibres penetrated the epithelium of the hard and soft palate, and terminated as free endings. Some CGRP-containing nerve fibres were found in the vicinity of the mucous glands. CGRP-immunoreactive motor end plates were seen in the striated muscle (tensor veli palatini) of the soft palate. Following capsaicin treatment a small depletion in CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the rat palate epithelium was noted. In contrast, CGRP immunoreactive fibres forming rich plexuses in other layers of the palate, including motor end plates, were not affected. The extractable CGRP showed no significant depletion (normal animals [n=10] 21.7±2.4 pmol/g compared with capsaicin-treated animals [n=10] 17.5±1.8 pmol CGRP/g wet weight). The reduction in the number of visible immunoreactive nerves following capsaicin application tends to confirm the sensory character of the CGRP-containing nerve fibres terminating in the epithelium of the hard and soft palate. The capsaicin insensitive CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres may thus have a predominantly motor function. The unilateral section of the mandibulary division of trigeminal, hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal and superior laryngeal nerve caused a depletion of variable severity in the ipsilateral CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the epithelium, subepithelial and periductal plexus and in motor end plates. These findings are in agreement with the radioimmunoassay results, which detect 22.7±1.0 pmol/g in normal tissues, 19.7±1.0 pmol/g after section of trigeminal nerve, and 18.6±1.2 pmol/g after simultaneous sectioning of the trigeminal, hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal, laryngeal and recurrent nerves. We conclude that CGRP is present in both sensory and motor components of cranial nerves which innervate the palate.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Bombesin ; Human pro-bombesin ; Lung ; Small cell carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Small cell carcinoma of the lung is a highly malignant tumour. Its known biological products which include bombesin, do not allow the prediction of tumour behaviour. Molecular biology has revealed the amino acid sequence of human pro-bombesin, which consists of a signal peptide, the bioactive bombesin molecule and a C-terminal peptide. We have raised a rabbit antiserum to the first (N-terminal) 21 amino acids of the predicted C-terminal peptide. A total of 505 (361 neuroendocrine) surgically resected pulmonary tumours were evaluated for the presence of immunoreactive bombesin and C-terminal peptide. Strong immunostaining was obtained with the antiserum to the C-terminal peptide of human probombesin in 70% of the small cell carcinomas (175/250), in 63% of atypical (aggressive) carcinoids (31/49) but only in 16% of benign carcinoids (10/62). In contrast, bombesin immunostaining was focal and only moderately strong and the relative proportion of positive cases was quite evenly distributed amongst the neuroendocrine tumours: 35% of carcinoids (22/62), 22% of atypical carcinoids (11/49) and 25% of small cell carcinoma (62/250). None of the squamous, adeno, or large cell undifferentiated carcinomas were immunoreactive for bombesin or the C-terminal peptide. Radioimmunoassay and chromatography of extracts of tumours recovered from wax blocks revealed high concentrations of C-terminal peptide immunoreactivity (241±66 pmol/g of tissue) in all 12 small cell carcinomas studied, moderate concentrations in carcinoid tumours (50±7 pmol/g) and none in non-small cell carcinomas. Patients with tumours showing immunoreactivity to the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin had a significantly shorter survival time than those without immunoreactive peptide (185±16.49 days, mean± SEM, and with 1128±226 days, respectivelyP〉 0.02). The apparent presence of the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin in higher concentrations than bombesin in the more malignant class of endocrine tumours, mainly small cell carcinomas associated with the poorest prognosis, suggests that the antiserum to this C-terminal peptide is not only a useful pathological marker but may prove to be of value in investigating the biological behaviour of small cell carcinomas and predicting the clinical course of the disease.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Amylin physiology ; insulin secretion ; amylin antagonists ; islet paracrine physiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To assess the effect of naturally-present amylin in the control of insulin release we infused a novel amylin antagonist, its 8–37 fragment, or amylin in anaesthetized rats for 60 min, and 30 min after the start arginine was infused for 14 min. Amylin8–37 decreased the blood glucose concentration by 18 % whereas the plasma insulin concentration was 90 % higher following arginine treatment. In contrast amylin infusion raised both glucose and insulin concentrations. These results suggest that while amylin added at high dose can induce peripheral insulin resistance, naturally present amylin tonally controls insulin secretion.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Neuropeptide Y ; Y1 receptor ; insulin secretion ; insulinoma cells.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to inhibit insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans. We show that insulin secretion in the insulinoma cell line RIN 5AH is inhibited by NPY. 125I-Peptide YY (PYY) saturation and competition-binding studies using NPY fragments and analogues on membranes prepared from this cell line show the presence of a single class of NPY receptor with a Y1 receptor subtype-like profile. Inhibition of insulin secretion in this cell line by NPY fragments and analogues also shows a Y1 receptor-like profile. Both receptor binding and inhibition of insulin secretion showed the same orders of potency with NPY 〉 [Pro34]-NPY 〉 NPY 3–36 〉 〉 NPY 13–36. The Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP 3226, blocks NPY inhibition of insulin secretion from, and inhibits 125I-PYY binding to, RIN 5AH cells. Northern blot analysis using a Y1-receptor specific probe shows that NPY Y1 receptors are expressed by RIN 5AH cells. Y5 receptors are not expressed in this cell line. Neuropeptide Y inhibition of insulin secretion is blocked by incubation with pertussis toxin, implying that the effect is via a G-protein (Gi or Go) coupled receptor. Neuropeptide Y inhibits the activation of adenylyl cyclase by isoprenaline in RIN 5AH cell lysates, and the stimulation of cAMP by glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide (GLP-1). It also blocks insulin secretion stimulated by GLP-1, but not by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Hence, we suggest that NPY inhibits insulin secretion from RIN 5AH cells via a Y1 receptor linked through Gi to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. [Diabetologia (1998) 41: 1482–1491]
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Islet amyloid polypeptide ; amylin ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diaibetes mellitus ; mRNA ; streptozotocin ; dexamethasone ; rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The response of the islet amyloid polypeptide gene to chronic dexamethasone treatment in adult rats was investigated. After 12 daily injections, rats were severely underweight and fasting blood glucose levels were elevated. When pancreatic mRNA was analysed, a 16-fold elevation in islet amyloid polypeptide mRNA was observed with only a fourfold increase in insulin mRNA levels. Pancreatic islet amyloid polypeptide and insulin mRNA levels were also determined 12 days after streptozotocin treatment. In these rats, which were not severely diabetic, the reduction in islet amyloid polypeptide mRNA levels was sixfold less than the reduction in insulin mRNA levels. In both these models of diabetes the ratio of islet amyloid polypeptide to insulin mRNA levels was raised. This would not be expected if the physiological role of islet amyloid polypeptide is as a simple hyperglycaemic agent opposing insulin action or release.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Islet amyloid polypeptide ; man ; intravenous glucose tolerance test ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; radioimmunoassay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence of islet amyloid polypeptide in amyloid within pancreatic islet cells in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, and its reported inhibition of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle in vitro, has prompted speculation concerning its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We investigated the effect of infused synthetic amidated human islet amyloid polypeptide (mol. wt. 3904, confirmed by mass spectroscopy) on intravenous glucose tolerance. Seven healthy, non-obese volunteers (age±SD, 27±4 years) were infused over 50 min with normal (0.9%) saline or islet amyloid polypeptide at 50 pmol·kg−1·min−1. After 20 min, a bolus of 0.5 g/kg glucose was given within 1 min and blood sampling continued for up to 60 min. Circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide reached at steady state were 1130±90 pmol/l. The calculated half-life was 11.8±0.9 min, metabolic clearance rate 5.7±0.6 ml·kg−1·min−1 and apparent distribution space therefore 94±12 ml/kg. However, islet amyloid polypeptide was found to have no effect on the peak value reached, or the total area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin or glucagon following intravenous glucose. This study suggests circulating islet amyloid polypeptide may not be an important influence on intravenous glucose tolerance in man.
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