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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with 35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Human spinal cord specimens were collected post mortem from eight adults (six males, two females; mean age 60 yr, range 48-83 yr) with no evidence of nervous system pathology. All cadavers were stored at 4 C within 2 h of death, and the spinal cords removed within 24 h, a period generally ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Poly-l-lysine (PPL) has been used to coat glass slides in the preparation of tissue sections for immunocytochemical staining. The adhesive properties of different molecular weight (m.w.) polymers of l-lysine have been tested on pre-fixed cryostat sections which were subjected to a 3 day washing treatment. It has been found that the higher the molecular weight of the polymer, the greater the adhesive force it provides. PLL (m.w. 350,000) at concentrations in the range of 0.05–0.1% was found to be the most effective polymer.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2649
    Keywords: Psychosocial health status ; care givers ; dementia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This project aimed to determine overall psychosocial health (measured using the psychosocial dimension of the Functional Limitations Profile) and factors which influence this in a group of carers of those with dementia and to compare their psychosocial health with that of older people attending general practitioners (GPs); arthritis support groups and a pain clinic (out-patients) and a group of community dwellers undergoing renal dialysis. The carer group showed a significant decrease in recreation and pastimes and social interactions compared to older GP attenders. The carers showed similar restrictions in social interactions and recreation to those with chronic arthritis, but the latter were more impaired in the domains of emotional behaviour and sleep and rest. The older people attending a pain clinic did not differ in the areas of alertness and social interactions compared to the carer group. The dialysis group demonstrated the greatest dysfunction overall. These results suggest that the psychosocial health of carers of those with dementia is impaired, the profile of which differs from those suffering with chronic diseases. Social and recreation activities appear most affected in the carers. Commensurate with studies exploring the health status of those suffering from diseases, the measurement of the psychosocial health status of carers should also be considered in the scope of assessment and intervention.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Zero-sum differential games ; singular arcs ; saddle points
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A class of two-persons zero-sum differential games with the possibility of singular arcs is considered. Under some assumptions, a sufficient condition for the existence of a saddle-point solution is derived. In this approach, the properties of convexity and concavity of the performance index are used to find the sufficient condition. It is observed that, unlike total singularity, the occurrence of partially singular arcs does not cause any problems for the existence of a unique saddle-point solution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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