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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 72. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 94. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie, 49. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20081022-20081025; Berlin; DOCWI84-973 /20081016/
    Publication Date: 2008-10-17
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  125. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20080422-20080425; Berlin; DOC08dgch9621 /20080416/
    Publication Date: 2008-04-14
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; PROTEIN ; MOLECULES ; RESPONSES ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; renal ; INDUCTION ; ANTIGEN ; CONTRAST ; mechanisms ; MOLECULE ; antibodies ; antibody ; PARTICLES ; virus ; NO ; PATHOGENESIS ; BETA ; E6 ; CLASS-I ; Jun ; REPLICATION ; INTERFERON ; KINETICS ; CYTOKINE ; pathogen ; VIRUS-INFECTION ; PATHOGENS ; HEMORRHAGIC-FEVER ; HIGH-TITER ; HUMAN MXA PROTEIN ; NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN ; PULMONARY SYNDROME ; PUUMALA-HANTAVIRUS ; RENAL SYNDROME ; RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; TULA VIRUS
    Abstract: Hantaviruses represent important human pathogens and can induce hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses replicate without causing any apparent cytopathic effect, suggesting that immunopathological mechanisms play an important role in pathogenesis. We compared the antiviral responses triggered by Hantaan virus (HTNV), a pathogenic hantavirus associated with HFRS, and Tula virus (TULV), a rather nonpathogenic hantavirus, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Both HTNV- and TULV-infected cells showed increased levels of molecules involved in antigen presentation. However, TULV-infected HUVECs upregulated HLA class I molecules more rapidly. Interestingly, HTNV clearly induced the production of beta interferon (IFN-beta), whereas expression of this cytokine was barely detectable in the supernatant or in extracts from TULV-infected HUVECs. Nevertheless, the upregulation of HLA class I on both TULV- and HTNV-infected cells could be blocked by neutralizing anti-IFN-beta antibodies. Most strikingly, the antiviral MxA protein, which interferes with hantavirus replication, was already induced 16 h after infection with TULV. In contrast, HTNV-infected HUVECs showed no expression of MxA until 48 h postinfection. In accordance with the kinetics of MxA expression, TULV replicated only inefficiently in HUVECs, whereas HTNV-infected cells produced high titers of virus particles that decreased after 48 h postinfection. Both hantavirus species, however, could replicate equally well in Vero E6 cells, which lack an IFN-induced MxA response. Thus, delayed induction of antiviral MxA in endothelial cells after infection with HTNV could allow viral dissemination and contribute to the pathogenesis leading to HFRS
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15163707
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; tumor ; AGENTS ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; POPULATION ; SITE ; SITES ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; gene therapy ; MICE ; INFECTION ; MARKER ; ANTIGEN ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; SUPPRESSION ; VARIANTS ; cytokines ; virus ; DELETION ; IN-SITU ; LYMPHOMA ; gene expression ; VECTOR ; MARKERS ; MELANOMA ; LYMPHOCYTES ; DERIVATIVES ; SURVEILLANCE ; MINUTE VIRUS ; GENE-THERAPY ; AUTONOMOUS PARVOVIRUSES ; autonomous parvovirus ; AGENT ; in situ hybridization ; INFILTRATION ; PROGRAM ; targeted ; PROTOCOL ; INTERLEUKIN-12 ; dendritic cell ; ABILITY ; parvovirus minute virus of mice
    Abstract: Due to their oncolytic properties and apathogenicity, autonomous parvoviruses have attracted significant interest as possible anticancer agents. Recent preclinical studies provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of minute virus of mice prototype strain (MVMp) and its recombinant derivatives. In a murine model of hemangiosarcoma, positive therapeutic outcome correlated with high intratumoral expression of MVMp-encoded genes in tumors and lymphoid organs, especially in tumor-draining lymph nodes. The source and relevance of this extratumoral expression, which came as a surprise because of the known fibrotropism of MVMp, remained unclear. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether the observed expression pattern occurs in different tumor models, (ii) which cell population is targeted by the virus, and (iii) the immunological consequences of this infection. Significant MVMp gene expression was detected in lymphoid tissues from infected tumor-free as well as melanoma-, lymphoma-, and hemangiosarcoma-bearing mice. This expression was especially marked in lymph nodes draining virus-injected tumors. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that MVMp was expressed in rare subpopulations of CD11b (Mac1)-positive cells displaying CD11c(+) (myeloid dendritic cells [MDC]) or CD45B (B220(+) [131 lymphocytes]) markers. Apart from the late deletion of cytotoxic memory cells (CD8(+) CD44(+) CD62L(-)), this infection did not lead to significant alteration of the immunological profile of cells populating lymphoid organs. However, subtle changes were detected in the production of specific proinflammatory cytokines in lymph nodes from virus-treated animals. Considering the role of 131 lymphocytes and MDC in cancer and immunological surveillance, the specific ability of these cell types to sustain parvovirus-driven gene expression may be exploited in gene therapy protocols
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15731246
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; CELL ; Germany ; TISSUE ; LINES ; TIME ; FAMILY ; INDUCTION ; TISSUES ; CONTRAST ; CELL-LINES ; DOWN-REGULATION ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; antibodies ; antibody ; immunohistochemistry ; ASSAY ; CARCINOMA CELLS ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; CANCER-CELLS ; BETA ; RT-PCR ; adenocarcinoma ; p21 ; CELL-SURFACE ; RECEPTORS ; DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION ; cell lines ; pancreatic cancer ; CELL-GROWTH ; signaling ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; FAMILIES ; DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA ; independent growth ; ENHANCED EXPRESSION ; TGF-beta 1 ; HEPARAN-SULFATE PROTEOGLYCANS ; LEVEL ; pancreatic ; ASSAYS ; SULFATE ; downregulation ; lymph node ; LYMPH-NODE ; correlation ; VIEW ; DECREASED SURVIVAL ; activin ; bone morphogenic protein ; CONTROLS CELLULAR-RESPONSES ; glypican ; heparan sulfate proteoglycans ; SMAD PROTEINS
    Abstract: Glypican 1 (GPC1) is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that acts as a co-receptor for heparin-binding growth factors as well as for members of the TGF-beta family. GPC1 plays a role in pancreatic cancer by regulating growth factor responsiveness. In view of the importance of members of the TGF-beta family in pancreatic cancer, in the present study, the role of GPC1 in TGF-beta, BMP and activin signaling was analyzed. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to analyze GPC1 and TGF-beta, BMP and activin receptor expression levels. Panc-1 and T3M4 pancreatic cancer cells were transfected in a stable manner with a GPC1 antisense expression construct. Anchorage-dependent and -independent growth was determined by MTT and soft agar assays. TGF-beta 1, activin-A and BMP-2 responsiveness was determined by MTT assays and immunoblotting with p21, p-Smad1, and p-Smad2 antibodies. QRT-PCR demonstrated increased GPC1 mRNA levels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) compared to normal pancreatic tissues (NPT), as described previously. There was a significant correlation between GPC1 mRNA levels and T beta RII, act-R1a, act-R1b, act-R2a, BMP-R1a, and BMP-R2 mRNA expression in NPT. In contrast, GPC1 mRNA expression correlated directly with act-R1a and BMP-R1a in NO PDAC cases and with act-R2a and BMP-R1a in lymph node positive cases. Down-regulation of GPC1 resulted in increased doubling time in Panc-1 but not in T3M4 cells, and decreased anchorage-independent growth in both cell lines. GPC1 down-regulation resulted in a slightly altered response towards TGF-beta 1, activin-A and BMP-2 in terms of growth, p21 induction and Smad2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, enhanced GPC1 expression correlates with BMP and activin receptors in pancreatic cancer. GPC1 down-regulation suppresses pancreatic cancer cell growth and slightly modifies signaling of members of the TGF-beta family of growth factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17016645
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INVASION ; SURVIVAL ; carcinoma ; TRIAL ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; HUMAN TUMOR-CELLS ; TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR ; QUALITY-OF-LIFE ; ANEMIA ; CHRONIC HEART-FAILURE ; EPOETIN-BETA ; STIMULATING AGENTS
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21829709
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  • 7
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; THERAPY ; MICE ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T-CELLS ; MINUTE VIRUS ; vaccination ; autonomous parvovirus ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; VIRUS-INFECTION
    Abstract: Treatment of cancers by means of viruses, that specifically replicate in (oncotropism) and kill ( oncolysis) neoplastic cells, is increasingly gaining acceptance in the clinic. Among these agents, parvoviruses have been shown to possess not only direct oncolytic but also immunomodulating properties, serving as an adjuvant to prime the immune system to react against infected tumors. Here, we aimed to establish whether immunomodulating mechanisms participate in the recently reported therapeutic potential of parvoviruses against pancreatic carcinoma. Using adoptive transfer experiments we discovered that the transfer of splenocytes of donor rats harboring H-1PV-treated orthotopic PDAC tumors could significantly prolong the survival of naive tumor-bearing recipients, compared to those receiving cells from mock-treated donors. Closer investigation of immunological parameters in infected donor rats revealed that virus-induced interferon gamma production and cellular immune response played an important role in this effect. These data have also preclinical relevance since abortive H-1PV infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or cocultivation of these cells with H-1PV-preinfected pancreatic cancer cells, resulted in enhancement of innate and adaptive immune reactivity. Taken together our data reveal that oncolytic H-1PV modulates the immune system into an anticancer state, and further support the concept of using parvoviruses in the fight against pancreatic cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21124075
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  • 8
    Keywords: PATHWAYS ; TARGET ; IDENTIFICATION ; p53 ; TUMOR-INITIATING CELLS
    Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are not targeted by current therapies, may be the reason for pronounced therapy resistance. A new treatment option in phase II trials is cabozantinib that inhibits the pancreatic CSC surface marker and tyrosine kinase receptor c-Met. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabozantinib to stem-like features and therapy resistance. Established PDA cell lines, a gemcitabine-resistant subclone, non-malignant pancreatic ductal cells and primary spheroidal cultures from patient tumors were analyzed by MTT-assay, flow cytometry, colony and spheroid formation assays, western blotting, qRT-PCR, antibody protein array, immunohistochemistry and morphological features. Cabozantinib inhibited viability and spheroid formation and induced apoptosis in malignant cells with minor effects in non-malignant cells. After long-term cabozantinib treatment, PDA cells had altered anti- and pro-apoptotic signaling, but still responded to cabozantinib, as apoptosis only slightly decreased and viability only slightly increased suggesting a low resistance-inducing potential of cabozantinib. In parallel, c-Met expression and the pluripotency transcription factor SOX2 were downregulated, which might counteract development of full therapy resistance in long-term treated subclones. In single-treatment studies, cabozantinib increased efficacy of gemcitabine. Most importantly, cabozantinib strongly induced apoptosis and reduced viability in PDA cell lines, which are completely resistant toward gemcitabine. In primary, CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures cabozantinib downregulated CSC markers SOX2, c-Met and CD133 and induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that the clinical use of cabozantinib may be more effective than current chemotherapeutics.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23661005
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  • 9
    Keywords: PATHWAY ; GENE ; transcription ; T-CELLS ; ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS ; KAPPA-B ; CD40 ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; MYELOFIBROSIS ; JAK2 INHIBITOR
    Abstract: Inhibition of Janus-activated kinase-1 (JAK1) is a promising clinical concept for post-transplant immunosuppression and autoimmunity. However, it also raises concerns regarding possible immunosuppressive side effects. Our study investigates JAK1 signalling in the context of CD40L and bacterially activated human MoDC using siRNA and biological inhibitors. We demonstrate that strong stimuli (e.g. intact Escherichia coli or LPS in addition to IL-1beta) induce IL-12p70 via a ROS/RELA/CDK9 pathway that is inhibited by simultaneous JAK1/STAT3 signalling. Transcription is effective if RELA recruits the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) component CDK9 to a combined RELA/STAT3 binding site -50 to -20bp upstream of the start site of the IL-12p35 promoter. STAT3 simultaneously attaches to this site and inhibits CDK9 binding. In the presence of IFNgamma, JAK1/2 inhibitors block STAT1/IRF1/IRF8-dependent activation and simultaneously enhance CDK9-dependent activation signals. This inverse regulation of IFNgamma- vs. E. coli-induced cytokine production by JAK inhibitors including Ruxolitinib was similarly observed for IL-6 and TNF-alpha production, but not for IL-10 production. Thus, JAK1 inhibition enhances IL-12p70 production in this context by increased DNA binding of CDK9. In contrast, weak RELA-activation signals (CD40L, LPS) depended on IFN-gamma induced STAT1/IRF1/IRF8 co-signalling, which was completely blocked by JAK inhibitors as reported before. Our results suggest a novel molecular mechanism of how cytokine responses to invading pathogens are separable from IFNgamma-dependent autoimmunity by targeting JAK1/STAT3 activation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25931145
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; TUMOR-CELLS ; ACTIVATION ; T-CELLS ; B-CELLS ; DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA ; AMYLASE RELEASE ; MARKER FOXP3 ; ACINAR-CELLS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Meaningful profiling of pancreatic cancer samples is particularly challenging due to their complex cellular composition. Beyond tumor cells, surgical biopsies contain desmoplastic stroma with infiltrating inflammatory cells, adjacent normal parenchyma, and "non-pancreatic tissues". The risk of misinterpretation rises when the heterogeneous cancer tissues are sub-divided into smaller fragments for multiple analytic procedures. Pre-analytic histological evaluation is the best option to characterize pancreatic tissue samples. Our aim was to develop a complement or alternative procedure to determine the cellular composition of pancreatic cancerous biopsies, basing on intra-analytic molecular annotation. A standard process for sample stratification at a molecular level does not yet exist. Particularly in the case of retrospective or data depository-based studies, when hematoxylin-eosin stained sections are not available, it supports the correct interpretation of expression profiles. METHODS: A five-gene transcriptional signature (RNACellStrat) was defined that allows cell type-specific stratification of pancreatic tissues. Testing biopsy material from biobanks with this procedure demonstrated high correspondence of molecular (qRT-PCR and microarray) and histologic (hematoxylin-eosin stain) evaluations. RESULTS: Notably, about a quarter of randomly selected samples (tissue fragments) were exposed as inappropriate for subsequent clinico-pathological interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: Via immediate intra-analytical procedure, our RNA-based stratification RNACellStrat increases the accuracy and reliability of the conclusions drawn from diagnostic and prognostic molecular information.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26118650
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