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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: crosslinked hemoglobin ; protein crystallography ; T-state hemoglobin ; macromolecular modeling ; three-dimensional structure ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The crystal structure of human T state hemoglobin crosslinked with bis(3,5-dibromo-salicyl) sebacate has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution. The final crystallographic R factor is 0.168 with root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) from ideal bond distance of 0.018 Å. The 10-carbon sebacyl residue found in the β cleft covalently links the two βLys82 residues. The sebacyl residue assumes a zigzag conformation with cis amide bonds formed by the NZ atoms of βLys82's and the sebacyl carbonyl oxygens. The atoms of the crosslink have an occupancy factor of 1.0 with an average temperature factor for all atoms of 34 Å2. An RMSD of 0.27 for all CA's of the tetramer is observed when the crosslinked deoxyhemoglobin is compared with deoxyhemoglobin refined by using a similar protocol, 2HHD [Fronticelli et al. J. Biol. Chem. 269:23965-23969, 1994]. Thus, no significant perturbations in the tertiary or quaternary structure are introduced by the presence of the sebacyl residue. However, the sebacyl residue does displace seven water molecules in the β cleft and the conformations of the β1Lys82 and β2Lys82 are altered because of the crosslinking. The carbonyl oxygen that is part of the amide bond formed with the NZ of β2Lys82 forms a hydrogen bond with side chain of β2Asn139 that is in turn hydrogen-bonded to the side chain of β2Arg104. A comparison of the observed conformation with that modeled [Bucci et al. Biochemistry 35:3418-3425, 1996] shows significant differences. The differences in the structures can be rationalized in terms of compensating changes in the estimated free-energy balance, based on differences in exposed surface areas and the observed shift in the side-chain hydrogen-bonding pattern involving β2Arg104, β2Asn139, and the associated sebacyl carbonyl group. Proteins 30:309-320, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: chymosin ; acid proteinase ; rennin ; X-ray structure ; structure comparison ; catalytic site ; crystal packing ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The crystal structure of recombinant bovine chymosin (EC 3.4.23.4; renin), which was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, has been determined using X-ray data extending to 2.3 Å resolution. The crystals of the enzyme used in this study belong to the space group I222 with unit cell dimensions a = 72.7 Å, b = 80.3 Å, and c = 114.8 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular replacement method and was refined by a restrained least-squares procedure. The crystallographic R factor is 0.165 and the deviation of bond distances from ideality is 0.020 Å. The resulting model includes all 323 amino acid residues, as well as 297 water molecules. The enzyme has an irregular shape with approximate maximum dimensions of 40 × 50 × 65 Å. The secondary structure consists primarily of parallel and antiparallel β-strands with a few short α-helices. The enzyme can be subdivided into N- and C- terminal domains which are separated by a deep cleft containing the active aspartate residues Asp-34 and Asp-216. The amino acid residues and waters at the active site form an extensive hydrogen-bonded network which maintains the pseudo 2-fold symmetry of the entire structure. A comparison of recombinant chymosin with other acid proteinases reveals the high degree of structural similarity with other members of this family of proteins as well as the subtle differences which make chymosin unique. In particular, Tyr-77 of the flap region of chymosin does not hydrogen bond to Trp-42 but protrudes out in the P1 pocket forming hydrophobic interactions with Phe-119 and Leu-32. This may have important implications concerning the mechanism of substrate binding and substrate specificity.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: crystallographic ; manganese ; ring opening ; X-ray ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The crystal structure of recombinant Streptomyces rubiginous D-xylose isomerase (D-xylose keto-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.5) solved by the multiple isomorphous replacement technique has been refined to R = 0.16 at 1.64 Å resolution. As observed in an earlier study at 4.0 Å (Carrell et al., J. Biol. Chem. 259: 3230-3236, 1984), xylose isomerase is a tetramer composed of four identical subunits. The monomer consists of an eight-stranded parallel β-barrel surrounded by eight helices with an extended C-terminal tail that provides extensive contacts with a neighboring monomer. The active site pocket is defined by an opening in the barrel whose entrance is lined with hydrophobic residues while the bottom of the pocket consists mainly of glutamate, aspartate, and histidine residues coordinated to two manganese ions.The structures of the enzyme in the presence of MnCl2, the inhibitor xylitol, and the substrate D-xylose in the presence and absence of MnCl2 have also been refined to R = 0.14 at 1.60 Å, R = 0.15 at 1.71 Å, R = 0.15 at 1.60 Å, and R = 0.14 at 1.60 Å, respectively. Both the ring oxygen of the cyclic α-D-xylose and its C1 hydroxyl are within hydrogen bonding distance of NE2 of His-54 in the structure crystallized in the presence of D-xylose. Both the inhibitor, xylitol, and the extended form of the substrate, D-xylose, bind such that the C2 and C4 OH groups interact with one of the two divalent cations found in the active site and the C1 OH with the other cation. The remainder of the OH groups hydrogen bond with neighboring amino acid side chains.A detailed mechanism for D-xylose isomerase is proposed. Upon binding of cyclic α-D-xylose to xylose isomerase, His-54 acts as the catalytic base in a ring opening reaction. The ring opening step is followed by binding of D-xylose, in volving two divalent cations, in an extended conformation. The isomerization of D-xylose to D-xylulose involves a metal-mediated 1,2-hydride shift. The final step in the mechanism is a ring closure to produce α-D-xylulose. The ring closing is the reverse of the ring opening step.This mechanism accounts for the majority of xylose iomerase's biochemical properties, in cluding (1) the lack of solvent exchange between the 2-position of D-xylose and the 1-pro-R position of D-xylulose, (2) the chemical modification of histidine and lysine, (3) the pH vs. activity profile, and (4) the requirement for two divalent cations in the mechanism.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: fibronectin ; heparin-binding region ; heparin ; X-ray crystallography ; crystallization ; hep-2A ; hep-2B ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two different heparin-binding fragments of human fibronectin have been crystallized in forms which are suitable for crystal structure analyses. The 30 kDa hep-2A fragment, consisting of type III domains 12-14, was crystallized from solutions containing ammonium sulfate or polyethylene glycol 6000. The crystals grown in ammonium sulfate solutions were orthorhombic with space group I222 or I212121 with a = 68.1 Å, b = 88.6 Å, and c = 144.9 Å. The crystals grown in polyethylene glycol solutions are hexagonal with space group P6122 or P6522 witha a = b = 66.7 Å and c = 245.7 Å. The 40 kDa hep-2B fragment, consisting of type III domains 12-15, was also crystallized from solutions containing ammonium sulfate with the addition of glycerol. Glycerol proved an effective agent for reducing the number of crystals in the crystallization experiments, and thus, increasing the size of the crystals in these experiments. This crystal form is nearly isomorphous to the orthorhombic form of the hep-2A fragment with space group I222 or I212121 and a = 67.5 Å, b = 87.0 Å, and c = 144.3 Å. All crystal forms diffract to at least 3.5 Å resolution and contain a single molecule in the asymmetric unit. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: subtilisin BPN′ ; proenzyme ; protein folding ; protein crystallography ; thermal stability ; calcium binding ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The three-dimensional structure of a subtilisin BPN′ construct that was produced and folded without its prodomain shows the tertiary structure is nearly identical to the wild-type enzyme and not a folding intermediate. The subtilisin BPN′ variant, Sbt70, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli without the prodomain, the 77-residue N-terminal domain that catalyzes the folding of the enzyme into its native tertiary structure. Sbt70 has the high-affinity calcium-binding loop, residues 75 to 83, deleted. Such calcium-independent forms of subtilisin BPN′ refold independently while retaining high levels of activity [Bryan et al., Biochemistry, 31:4937-4945, 1992]. Sbt70 has, in addition, seven stabilizing mutations, K43N, M50F, A73L, Q206V, Y217K, N218S, Q271E, and the active site serine has been replaced with alanine to prevent autolysis. The purified Sbt70 folded spontaneously without the prodomain and crystallized at room temperature. Crystals of Sbt70 belong to space group P212121 with unit cell parameters a = 53.5 Å, b = 60.3 Å, and c = 83.4 Å. Comparison of the refined structure with other high-resolution structures of subtilisin BPN′ establishes that the conformation of Sbt70 is essentially the same as that previously determined for other calcium-independent forms and that of other wild-type subtilisin BPN′ structures, all folded in the presence of the prodomain. These findings confirm the results of previous solution studies that showed subtilisin BPN′ can be refolded into a native conformation without the presence of the prodomain [Bryan et al., Biochemistry 31:4937-4945, 1992]. The structure analysis also provides the first descriptions of four stabilizing mutations, K43N, A73L, Q206V, and Q271E, and provides details of the interaction between the enzyme and the Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu tetrapeptide found in the active-site cleft. Proteins 31:21-32, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: antibody ; antitumor ; single chain Fv ; variable domains ; X-ray crystallography ; protein structure ; protein stability ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A recombinant Fv construct of the B1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes the LewisY-related carbohydrate epitope on human carcinoma cells has been prepared. The Fv is composed of the polypeptide chains of the VH and VL domains expressed independently and isolated as inclusion bodies. The Fv is prepared by combining and refolding equimolar amounts of guanidine chloride solubilized inclusion bodies. The Fv is stabilized by an engineered interchain disulfide bridge between residues VL100 and VH44. This construct has a similar binding affinity as that of the single-chain construct (Benhar and Pastan, Clin. Cancer Res. 1:1023-1029, 1995). The B1 disulfide-stabilized Fv (B1dsFv) crystallizes in space group P6122 with the unit cell parameters a = b = 80.1 Å, and c = 138.1 Å. The crystal structure of the B1dsFv has been determined at 2.1-Å resolution using the molecular replacement technique. The final structure has a crystallographic R-value of 0.187 with a root mean square deviation in bond distance of 0.014 Å and in bond angle of 2.74°. Comparisons of the B1dsFv structure with known structures of Fv regions of other immunoglobulin fragments shows closely related secondary and tertiary structures. The antigen combining site of B1dsFv is a deep depression 10-Å wide and 17-Å long with the walls of the depression composed of residues, many of which are tyrosines, from complementarity determining regions L1, L3, H1, H2, and H3. Model building studies indicate that the LewisY tetrasaccharide, Fuc-Gal-Nag-Fuc, can be accommodated in the antigen combining site in a manner consistent with the epitope predicted in earlier biochemical studies (Pastan, Lovelace, Gallo, Rutherford, Magnani, and Willingham, Cancer Res. 51:3781-3787, 1991). Thus, the engineered disulfide bridge appears to cause little, if any, distortion in the Fv structure, making it an effective substitute for the B1 Fab. Proteins 31:128-138, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: enzyme structure ; disorder ; refinement ; high resolution ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The highly refined 1.26 Å structure (R = 0.15) of phosphate-free bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A was modeled with 13 residues having discrete multiple conformations of side chains. These residues are widely distributed over the protein surface, but only one of them, Lys 61, is involved in crystal packing interactions. The discrete conformers have no unusual torsion angles, and their interactions with the solvent and with other atoms of the protein are similar to those residues modeled with a single conformation. For three of the residues-Val 43, Asp 83, and Arg 85-two correlated conformations are found. The observed multiple conformations on the protein surfaces will be of significance in analyzing structure-function relationships and in performing protein engineering.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: thermal stability ; protein engineering ; mutagenesis ; plate assay ; thermophilic enzymes ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A Procedure has been developed for the isolation and identification of mutants in the bacterial serine protease subtilisin that exhibit enhanced thermal stability. The cloned subtilisin BPN'gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was treated with bisulfite, a chemical mutagen that deaminates cytosine to uracil in single-stranded DNA. Strains containing the cloned, mutagenized subtilisin gene which produced subtilisin with enhanced thermal stability were selected by a simple plate assay procedure which screens for esterase activity on nitrocellulose filters after preincubation at elevated temperatures. One thermostable subtilisin variant, designated 7150, has been fully characterized and found to differ from wild-type subtilisin by a single substitution of Ser for Asn at position 218. The 7150 enzyme was found to undergo thermal inactivation at onefourth the rate of the wild-type enzyme when incubated at elevated temperatures. Moreover, the midpoint in the thermally induced transition from the folded to unfolded state was found to be 2.4-3.9°C higher for 7150 as determined by differential scanning calorimetry under a variety of conditions. The refined, 1.8-Å crystal structures of the wild-type and 7150 subtilisin have been compared in detail, leading to the conclusion that slight improvements in hydrogen bond parameters in the vicinity of position 218 result in the enhanced thermal stability of 7150.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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