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  • 1
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Laryngectomised patients ; Low resistance ; Tecoflex polyurethane material ; Voice prosthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Breathing pattern ; Exercise ; Adolescents ; Training ; Maximal mouth pressure ; Diaphragmatic electromyogram ; Transversus abdominis electromyogram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The breathing pattern and respiratory muscle function were investigated in ten trained and ten untrained adolescents (aged 15–16 years) while undergoing an incremental intensity exercise test on a cycle ergometer up to 80% maximal oxygen consumption ( $$\dot V$$ O2max), maintained to exhaustion. Before and after exercise, maximal inspiratory (P I max) and expiratory (P E max) pressures were measured at residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. During exercise, the breathing pattern [tidal volume (V T), respiratory frequency (f R), ventilation] and the relative contribution of ribcage and abdomen to V T were assessed using inductance plethysmography. Electromyographic activities of transversus abdominis (EMGtr) and diaphragm (EMGdi) muscles were recorded and analysed during exercise. There was a difference in the change in the pattern of breathing between the trained and the untrained group; f R increased significantly (P 〈 0.05) at 40% $$\dot V$$ O2maxfor the untrained group. Before exercise there was no difference in the maximal respiratory pressures. Up to 60% and 80% $$\dot V$$ O2max, transversus abdominis and diaphragm muscle activity increased significantly in the trained adolescents. However in this group, no evidence of respiratory muscle fatigue appeared: P I max, P E max and the frequency spectrum of EMGtr and EMGdi were not altered by exercise up to exhaustion. In the untrained group, who had high ventilatory responses, expiratory muscle function was unchanged at the end of the exercise, but signs of inspiratory muscle fatigue appeared in that P I max was significantly decreased after exercise.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Fusimotor ; Afferent ; Intrafusal contraction ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Responses of secondary endings of muscle spindles of the peroneus tertius muscle of the anaesthetized cat have been recorded during repetitive stimulation of functionally single fusimotor fibres that produced slowing of the discharge. In a sample of 125 pairs of single fusimotor fibres and secondary spindle afferents 5 examples of slowing were seen. The amount of slowing became less at longer muscle lengths. Conditioning the spindle by stimulating the muscle nerve at fusimotor strength, at a length 2.5 mm longer than the test length, and then returning to the test length 3 seconds later led to a greater degree of slowing of the discharge than after conditioning stimulation at the test length. With one exception, responses to muscle stretch were reduced during stimulation of a fusimotor fibre that produced slowing. On two occasions stimulating a fusimotor fibre that produced slowing of the response of one secondary ending, led to excitation of two other endings. Two possible explanations for the generation of slowing responses have been considered. The first is that the slowing is the result of contraction of the region of intrafusal fibre directly underlying the secondary sensory ending. The second, which we favour since it accounts for the facts more adequately, is that slowing is the result of shortening of the region of nuclear chain fibres on which the sensory ending lies, produced by movement in an adjacent nuclear bag fibre.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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