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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; MEN ; body mass index ; EPIC study ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; physical activity ; fat distribution ; elderly ; metabolic syndrome ; anthropometry ; body height ; OLDER-ADULTS ; BODY-MASS-INDEX ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; HIP FRACTURE ; OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES ; SELF-REPORT ; Waist-to-hip ratio
    Abstract: Introduction: Hip fractures constitute a major and growing public health problem amongst the elderly worldwide. We examined the association of anthropometry and physical activity with hip fracture incidence in a cohort of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 27 982 volunteers (10 553 men and 17 429 women) aged 60 years and above from five European countries. Information on anthropometry, physical activity, medical history and other characteristics was collected at baseline. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 261 incident hip fractures (203 women and 58 men) were recorded. Data were analysed through Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower hip fracture risk (hazard ratio (HR) per increasing sex-specific-quintile: 0.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.77-0.94). Body height was associated with increased hip fracture risk (HR per 5 cm: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.25). Waist-to-hip ratio was not related to hip fracture risk. Increasing levels of leisure-time physical activity were related to lower risk (HR per increasing tertile: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-0.99, p for trend: 0.039). Conclusions: In a prospective cohort study of elderly Europeans, we found evidence that high body stature increased and high BMI decreased the incidence of hip fractures. After adjustment for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio was not associated with hip fracture risk. Leisure-time physical activity appears to play a beneficial role in the prevention of hip fractures.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20863492
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; risk factors ; DIET ; nutrition ; NUTRIENTS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; elderly ; OLDER-ADULTS ; alcohol intake ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; N-3 FATTY-ACIDS ; OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES ; hip fractures ; PREVENT FRACTURES ; PROTEIN-INTAKE ; RANCHO BERNARDO ; VITAMIN-D SUPPLEMENTATION
    Abstract: Background/Objectives: Evidence on the role of diet during adulthood and beyond on fracture occurrence is limited. We investigated diet and hip fracture incidence in a population of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Subjects/Methods: 29 122 volunteers (10 538 men, 18 584 women) aged 60 years and above (mean age: 64.3) from five countries were followed up for a median of 8 years and 275 incident hip fractures (222 women and 53 men) were recorded. Diet was assessed at baseline through validated dietary questionnaires. Data were analyzed through Cox proportional-hazards regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: No food group or nutrient was significantly associated with hip fracture occurrence. There were suggestive inverse associations, however, with vegetable consumption (hazard ratio (HR) per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.01), fish consumption (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85-1.02) and polyunsaturated lipid intake (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.02), whereas saturated lipid intake was positively associated with hip fracture risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.99-1.29). Consumption of dairy products did not appear to influence the risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.93-1.12). Conclusions: In a prospective study of the elderly, diet, including consumption of dairy products, alcohol and vitamin D, did not appear to play a major role in hip fracture incidence. There is however, weak and statistically non-significant evidence that vegetable and fish consumption and intake of polyunsaturated lipids may have a beneficial, whereas saturated lipid intake a detrimental effect.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20948558
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTEIN ; ASSOCIATION ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; DIET ; DIETARY ; FAT ; CALCIUM ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; nutrient intake ; NUTRIENTS ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; VITAMIN-C ; dietary intake ; STANDARDIZATION ; carbohydrate ; eating out of home ; 24-h dietary recall ; RATIONALE ; EPIC-soft ; nutrient intakes ; nutrient patterns ; AMERICA ; FOOD-CONSUMPTION
    Abstract: Objectives: To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out-versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 participants aged between 35-74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software programme (EPIC-Soft) that recorded the place of food/drink consumption. Eating OH was defined as the consumption of foods and beverages anywhere other than in household premises, irrespective of the place of purchase/preparation. Nutrient intakes were estimated using a standardized nutrient database. Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Among women, OH eating contributed more to total fat intake than to intakes of protein and carbohydrates. Among both genders, and particularly in southern Europe, OH eating contributed more to sugar and starch intakes and less to total fibre intake. The contribution of OH eating was also lower for calcium and vitamin C intakes. The composition of diet at home was different from that consumed out of home in southern countries, but was relatively similar in the north. Conclusions: In northern Europe, OH and in-home eating are homogeneous, whereas southern Europeans consider OH eating as a distinctive occasion. In most centres, women selected more fat-rich items when eating out.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888277
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