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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: One partially dentate person, his remaining teeth being 44, 43, 42, 41, 31, 32 and 33, was simultaneously provided with one maxillary complete denture and three mandibular free end saddle dentures having cobalt chromium alloy skeletons of different design. One denture was constructed with a lingual plate, another with a sublingual and a secondary bar, while on a third denture the major connector consisted of an enlarged secondary bar. On all the dentures occlusal rests were placed on teeth nos 44 and 33.Rosette strain gauges were placed in the midlines of all the major connectors. The gauges were calibrated on the master cast placed in a universal testing machine.The clinical recordings were taken from the gauges during one session under repeated loading conditions. Readings were repeated on one denture after removal of (1) the secondary bar and (2) the secondary bar and the occlusal rests. The recordings were used to calculate (I) the principal maximum and minimum strains and (2) the direction of the strains at the points of the bases beneath the centre of the gauges.The results show that studies of relevant functional deformation patterns of dentures can only be made in clinical experiments. Further, they show that the base with an enlarged secondary bar exhibits more deformation than the other two types of base. Removal of the secondary bar did not significantly increase the deformation of the denture also equipped with a sublingual bar, neither did the removal of the occlusal rests. Both these changes, however, caused changes of the deformation patterns.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary Sections of flash-frozen saliva particle mixture were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The saliva samples used consisted of 40% by volume parotid and 60% by volume submandibular sublingual fractions. One mL of the saliva was mixed with 0.1 mL of either hydrophilic or hydrophobic particles of 0.9 μm diameter. The micrographs of the saliva and hydrophilic particles mixes showed the multiple spherical particles in the salivary network structures. Micrographs of the saliva and hydrophilic particle mixes showed the presence of few such objects; when observed, the particles were located only in the electron dense part of the salivary structures.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using 5 Labrador dogs, certain characteristics of the peri-implant tissues were analyzed after using a 1-step surgical procedure for installation of Brånemark® implants. Six titanium implants, 3 in each mandibular quadrant, were installed in the regions of the right and left first molars and the fourth and third premolars. In the right mandibular quadrant, a traditional 2-step procedure was employed, whilst in the left quadrant, a 1-step procedure was carried out. The animals were monitored during a 6-month period. Biopsies of the healed peri-implant mucosa showed signs of superficial inflammation. The histological analysis revealed that i) the connective tissue lateral to the junctional epithelium showed limited accumulations of inflammatory cells (PICT), and ii) that at implant sites that had been exposed to the oral cavity for 6 months (1-step implants), an inflammatory cell infiltrate (abutment ICT) consistently was present in the tissues facing the abutment-fixture junction (AFJ). This infiltrate was separated from the bone crest by a 0.8mm-wide zone of normal connective tissue. Irrespective of the surgical procedure applied, the radiographic and histometric measurements disclosed that i) the crestal bone loss was about 2.4mm, ii) the height of the peri-implant mucosa varied from 3.5mm to 3.9mm, iii) the bone crest was located 1.1–1.5 mm apical of AFJ as well as of the apical termination of the junctional epithelium (aJE), and iv) a junctional epithelium of 2.1–2.4mm faced the implant surface. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, using a dog model, titanium dental implants ad modum Branemark installed according to a 1-step or to a 2-step surgical procedure will obtain similar soft tissue adaptation and proper bone anchorage (osseointegration). Further studies are, however, required to ascertain the long-term clinical feasibility of the 1-step approach.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In a combined in vitro and in vivo study strain gauges were used to register the deformation in two terminal implant abutment cylinders, when connecting three different prosthetic appliances. The prosthetic constructions were placed on the abutments and fastened both in vitro and in vivo by using different torque sequences. Furthermore, in the in vitro situation the three medial abutments were replaced by abutments which were 100 μm shorter.The results show that even if the prosthetic constructions were judged to have a good clinical fit, relatively large External Preloads were registered both in vitro and in vivo. No significant differences in axial force or in bending moment were found between the torque sequences in vivo. There were, however, significant differences in axial force as well as in bending moment in the in vitro experiment. When the shorter medial abutments were used in vitro, a change in the axial force of approximately 200N was registered. The results confirm that the methodological approach used in this study is valid when evaluating preloads.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In 10 partially dentate subjects, all with long histories of skin reactions to nickel, prosthetic treatments were performed with fixed prosthetic appliances manufactured in a denial alloy containing 66% nickel. During lime periods varying from 12 to over 40 months, these subjects were controlled using a variety of dental and medical methods. Neither adverse general nor oral clinical nor histological reactions were noted during the observation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The influence of chlorhexidine and Octapinol® on early plaque formation in humans was assessed in vivo. Three subjects with healthy gingiva were used. Plastic films were applied to the buccal surfaces of the maxillary right first premolars and plaque was allowed to form for either 4 or 24 hours. After 1 minute of plaque development, a drop of water, 1 % chlorhexidine or 1 % Octapinol was gently applied in situ; in the 24-h experiment an additional drop was added at 12 h. In total, 76 films were obtained, with a comparable number of specimens in each of the 6 groups. The samples were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy, using standardized techniques for area sampling and cell counting. All control films were covered by a surface coating of acellular material in or on which bacteria, epithelial cells and leukocytes were observed. The controls and to a lesser extent the Octapinol samples exhibited a significant increase in bacterial count between 4 and 24 h. However, the number of bacteria in the chlorhexidine samples showed only a slight increase within this period. Some microorganisms in the chlorhexidine samples appeared to be undergoing degeneration. In the Octapinol specimens the bacterial morphology was generally intact with many extracellular areas of high electron density. Chlorhexidine and Octapinol both had a qualitative effect on early plaque formation, but only the former had a detectable quantitative effect at this initial stage of plaque accumulation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In vivo bite forces, implant axial forces and bending moments were measured on 5 patients with fixed posterior prostheses supported by a natural tooth and a single Brinemark implant. The results demonstrate that the vertical loads applied to the prostheses are shared between the tooth and the implant. The maximum bending moment transferred to the implant (10–15N.cm) was well below the acceptable load limits for the mechanical components (50–60N.cm), even at bite forces exceeding 100 N. The main reason for this load sharing seems to be the inherent bending flexibility of the implant screw joint, which matches the axial flexibility of the periodontal ligament of the tooth.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A clinical and radiographical study was performed to evaluate whether initial submergence of titanium fixtures is an obligate treatment measure for the establishment of proper bone anchorage when implants a.m. Brånemark are used. The sample was comprised of 11 subjects with edentulous mandibles. A split-mouth design was employed; in the right mandibular quadrant a traditional 2-step procedure for fixture installation and abutment connection was utilized, while in the left quadrant a 1-step procedure was carried out, i.e., fixtures were placed and abutments were connected in one and the same session. Three to 4 months after fixture installation, fixed bridgeworks were fabricated and rigidly connected to the implants. Clinical examinations (including probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing and implant stability test) were performed after 12 and 18 months. Radiographs were taken following insertion of the bridges and at the 12- and 18-month re-examinations. The probing pocket depth, the bleeding on probing, the implant stability and the radiographic determinations were similar for the 2 groups of treatment alternatives. This indicates that titanium fixtures a.m. Brinemark can be properly anchored (osseointegrated) in mandibular bone and successfully used for bridge retention also when a 1-step procedure is used for implant installation.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The present experiment was performed to examine if the material used in the abutment part of an implant system influenced the quality of the mucosal barrier that formed following implant installation. 5 beagle dogs were included in the study. The mandibular premolars and the 1st. 2nd and 3rd maxillary premolars were extracted. Three fixtures of the Brånemark System® were installed in each mandibular quadrant (a total of 6 fixtures per animal). Abutment connection was performed after 3 months of healing. In each dog the following types of abutments were used: 2 “control abutments” (c.p. titanium). 2 “ceramic abutments” (highly sintered Al2O3), 1 “gold abutment”, and 1 “short titanium abutment”. This “short titanium abutment” was provided with an outer structure made of dental porcelain fused to gold. Following abutment connection a plaque control program was initiated and maintained for 6 months. The animals were sacrificed and perfused with a fixative. The mandibles were removed and each implant region was dissected, demineralized in EDTA and embedded in EPON®. Semithin sections representing the mesial, distal, buccal and lingual aspects of the peri-implant tissues were produced and subjected to histological examination. The findings from the analysis demonstrated that the material used in the abutment portion of the implant influenced the location and the quality of the attachment that occurred between the periimplant mucosa and the implant. Abutments made of c.p. titanium or ceramic allowed the formation of a mucosal attachment which included one epithelial and one connective tissue portion that were about 2 mm and 1–1.5 mm high, respectively. At sites where abutments made of gold alloy or dental porcelain were used, no proper attachment formed at the abutment level, but the soft tissue margin receded and bone resorption occurred. The abutment fixture junction was hereby occasionally exposed and the mucosal barrier became established to the fixture portion of the implant. It was suggested that the observed differences were the result of varying adhesive properties of the materials studied or by variations in their resistance to corrosion.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Strain gauges were used to record in viva and in vitro functional deformations in a fixed prosthetic appliance supported and retained by osseointegrated titanium implants. Four linear gauges were attached to each of totally 5 implant abutment cylinders and gauge signals were transferred into a computer via a digital converter. A computer program (ASYST) was used for collection, calibration and analysis of data obtained. Based on the results of a series of explorative in vitro tests, in viva experiments were performed at maximum biting as well as during chewing on certain normally available food items. The results show fundamental differences between in vitro and in vivo testing conditions. Unexpectedly high bending of the implants was recorded in many of the in viva loading situations.
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