Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary The pharmacokinetics of sulphamethoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) have been investigated in four healthy volunteers, 15 patients with stable chronic renal failure and 3 patients on regular dialysis. The dosage schedule was 400 mg of SMZ and 80 mg of TMP orally every 12 h. The plasma concentrations and urinary excretion have been analysed in terms of a one compartment open model, allowing for elimination by renal excretion and metabolic processes. — At equilibrium the plasma concentrations of unchanged sulphonamide showed no significant correlation with the degree of renal impairment. The accumulation of TMP increased slightly without affecting the concentration ratio of both agents in plasma. In contrast, increasing accumulation of metabolized SMZ was demonstrated in the presence of renal insufficiency. Indirect evidence indicates that rising metabolite levels under these circumstances may lead to a displacement of unchanged sulphonamide from protein binding sites. — The cumulative urinary excretion amounted to 82.4% of the dose of sulphonamide administered, which probably corresponds to the fraction of the compound absorbed. The urinary concentration of biologically active SMZ was slightly below the plasma level, especially in advanced renal failure, but it remained above the minimum inhibitory concentrations reported in the literature. The concentration of TMP in urine was considerably higher than in plasma, it decreased with loss of renal function as did active SMZ.
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