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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; INTERVENTION ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; OLDER WOMEN ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; INSULIN SENSITIVITY ; DRINKING PATTERNS
    Abstract: Abstract. Beulens JWJ, van der Schouw YT, Bergmann MM, Rohrmann S, B Schulze M, Buijsse B, Grobbee DE, Arriola L, Cauchi S, Tormo M-J, Allen NE, van der A DL, Balkau B, Boeing H, Clavel-Chapelon F, de Lauzon-Guillan B, Franks P, Froguel P, Gonzales C, Halkjaer J, Huerta JM, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw KT, Krogh V, Molina-Montes E, Nilsson P, Overvad K, Palli D, Panico S, Ramon Quiros J, Ronaldsson O, Romieu I, Romaguera D, Sacerdote C, Sanchez M-J, Spijkerman AMW, Teucher B, Tjonneland A, Tumino R, Sharp S, Forouhi NG, Langenberg C, Feskens EJM, Riboli E, Wareham NJ (University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands; German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrucke, Germany; German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany; Basque Government, San Sebastian, CIBERESP, Spain; Institut de Biologie de Lille, Lille, France; Murcia Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Spain; University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif Cedex, France; Lund University, Malmo, Sweden; Imperial College, London, UK; Department of Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain; Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori Milan, Milan, Italy; Andalusian School of Public Health, Granada, Spain; School of Public Health, Aarhus, Denmark; Cancer Research and Prevention Institute (ISPO), Florence, Italy; Universita Federico II, Napoli, Italy; Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios, Oviedo-Asturias, Spain; Umea University, Umea, Sweden; International Agency for Research of Cancer, Lyon, France; Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO-Piemonte), Torino, Italy; "Civile - M.P. Arezzo" Hospital, Ragusa, Italy; Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK; and Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands). Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in European men and women: influence of beverage type and body size. The EPIC-InterAct study. J Intern Med 2012; 272: 358-370. Objective: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes, and determine whether this is modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and beverage type. Design: Multicentre prospective case-cohort study. Setting: Eight countries from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Subjects: A representative baseline sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Interventions: Alcohol consumption assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. Main outcome measures: Occurrence of type 2 diabetes based on multiple sources (mainly self-reports), verified against medical information. Results: Amongst men, moderate alcohol consumption was nonsignificantly associated with a lower incidence of diabetes with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.05) for 6.1-12.0 versus 0.1-6.0 g day(-1) , adjusted for dietary and diabetes risk factors. However, the lowest risk was observed at higher intakes of 24.1-96.0 g day(-1) with an HR of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75-0.98). Amongst women, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower incidence of diabetes with a hazard ratio of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92) for 6.1-12.0 g day(-1) (P interaction gender 〈0.01). The inverse association between alcohol consumption and diabetes was more pronounced amongst overweight (BMI 〉/= 25 kg m(-2) ) than normal-weight men and women (P interaction 〈 0.05). Adjusting for waist and hip circumference did not alter the results for men, but attenuated the association for women (HR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.03 for 6.1-12.0 g day(-1) ). Wine consumption for men and fortified wine consumption for women were most strongly associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. Conclusions: The results of this study show that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22353562
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  • 2
    Abstract: Genes involved in the inflammation pathway have been associated with cancer risk. Genetic variants in the interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2, encoding for the COX-2 enzyme) genes, in particular, have been related to several cancer types, including breast and prostate cancers. We conducted a study within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium to examine the association between IL6 and PTGS2 polymorphisms and breast and prostate cancer risk. Twenty-seven polymorphisms, selected by pairwise tagging, were genotyped on 6292 breast cancer cases and 8135 matched controls and 8008 prostate cancer cases and 8604 matched controls. The large sample sizes and comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism tagging in this study gave us excellent power to detect modest effects for common variants. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of the associations examined remained statistically significant at P = 0.01. In analyses not adjusted for multiple testing, one IL6 polymorphism (rs6949149) was marginally associated with breast cancer risk (TT versus GG, odds ratios (OR): 1.32; 99% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00-1.74, P(trend) = 0.003) and two were marginally associated with prostate cancer risk (rs6969502-AA versus rs6969502-GG, OR: 0.87, 99% CI: 0.75-1.02; P(trend) = 0.002 and rs7805828-AA versus rs7805828-GG, OR: 1.11, 99% CI: 0.99-1.26; P(trend) = 0.007). An increase in breast cancer risk was observed for the PTGS2 polymorphism rs7550380 (TT versus GG, OR: 1.38, 99% CI: 1.04-1.83). No association was observed between PTGS2 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. In conclusion, common genetic variation in these two genes might play at best a limited role in breast and prostate cancers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19965896
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; ACCURACY ; WOMEN ; RELIABILITY ; VALIDITY ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; physical activity ; ADULTS ; METAANALYSIS ; REPEATABILITY ; SELF-REPORT ; ACCELEROMETRY ; ACTIHEART ; ACTIVITY ENERGY-EXPENDITURE ; COMBINED HEART-RATE ; SENSOR
    Abstract: To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured in 1,941 healthy individuals from 10 European countries using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the short EPIC-PAQ, which refers to past year's activity. Pearson (r) and Spearman (sigma) correlation coefficients were calculated for each country, and random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the combined correlation across countries to estimate the validity of two previously- and one newly-derived ordered, categorical PA indices ("Cambridge index", "total PA index", and "recreational index") that categorized individuals as inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, or active. The strongest associations with PAEE and MVPA were observed for the Cambridge index (r = 0.33 and r = 0.25, respectively). No significant heterogeneity by country was observed for this index (I(2) = 36.3%, P = 0.12; I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.85), whereas heterogeneity was suggested for other indices (I(2) 〉 48%, P 〈 0.05, I(2) 〉 47%, P 〈 0.05). PAEE increased linearly across self-reported PA categories (P for trend 〈0.001), with an average difference of approximately 460 kJ/d for men and 365 kJ/d for women, between categories of the Cambridge index. The EPIC-PAQ is suitable for categorizing European men and women into four distinct categories of overall physical activity. The difference in PAEE between categories may be useful when estimating effect sizes from observational research.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22089423
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Chitin synthetase ; chitosomes ; Mucorales
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Stability of chitin synthetase in cell-free extracts from mycelial fungi was markedly improved by the presence of sucrose in the homogenization media. Breakage of mycelium in sucrose-containing buffer yielded enzyme preparations from which chitosomal chitin synthetase could be purified by a procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and centrifugation in sucrose density gradients. Purified chitosomes catalyzed the synthesis of chitin microfibrils in vitro upon incubation with substrate and activators. Chitosomal chitin synthetase from the filamentous form of M. rouxii was similar to the enzyme from yeast cells, except for the poorer stability and diminished sensitivity to GlcNAc activation of the former.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Distinct isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the synthetic enzyme for GABA, exist in brain. Their distribution at the cellular level is not known, because previous studies have been confounded by the lack of monospecificity of available antibodies. We have examined the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Mr 67 000; GAD67) in the basal ganglia of the rat with a polyclonal antibody generated against the protein expressed in bacteria transformed with the corresponding cDNA. This antibody, which is directed against a portion of GAD67 non homologous to other known glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms, selectively recognizes GAD67 on western blots. We show that GAD67 is present to various degree in all types of GABAergic neurons previously described in these regions. In contrast with results obtained with non-selective antibodies for glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD67-positive neuronal cell bodies were readily detected in sections of the striatum, pallidum and substantia nigra in the absence of colchicine treatment. Modifications in the immunohistochemical procedure favoured staining of glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive fibres with the same antibody, indicating that GAD67 is also present in axon terminals of GABAergic neurons. The results suggest that GAD67 may be involved in GABA synthesis in both cell bodies and axon terminals of all GABAergic neurons of the basal ganglia, but is particularly abundant or accessible in their cell bodies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8943
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Mittels thermodielektrischer Analyse wurden einige gut charakterisierte Kaoline aus kubanischen Lagerstätten untersucht. Die Proben wurden mittels Thermoanalyse (TA), Röntgendiffraktion (XRD), Infrarotspektroskopie (IR), Elektronenmikroskopie (EM) und Elementaranalyse untersucht. Die Dielektrothermogramme zeigen, daß bei den hydratierten Versionen der augenscheinlichste Effekt der Wasserpeak ist. Der zweite dielektrische Effekt bei höheren Temperaturen wird mit der Kationenleitung in Zusammenhang gebracht, wodurch es möglich wird, Informationen über den K-Gehalt der Proben zu erlangen.
    Abstract: Резюме Для испытания очень х орошо охарактеризованных каолинов кубинского месторождения месторождения был использован терм одиэлектрический ан ализ. Образцы анализировались тер мическим анализом (ТА), рентгено диффракционным мето дом, ИК спектроскопией, элек тронной микроскопие й и химическим анализо м. Диэлектрические ди аграммы показали, что наиболе е доказанным эффектом является пи к воды процесса гидра тации. Второй диэлектричес кий эффект, наблюдаемый при высо ких температурах, свя зан с катионной проводимо стью, в связи с чем можно наблюдать связ ь его с содержанием ка лия в образце.
    Notes: Abstract Thermodielectric analysis has been used to test some very well-characterized kaolins from Cuban deposits. The samples were analysed by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrometry, electron microscopy and chemical analysis. The dielectrical thermograms show that the most evident effect for the hydrated versions is the water peak. The second dielectric effect, at high temperatures, is related to the cationic conductions. A relation involving the K content of the sample was observed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8943
    Keywords: adiabatic ; calorimetry ; mixing ; runaway ; self-heating ; stirring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract This paper explains why directly agitated test cells are sometimes required in order to obtain good adiabatic calorimetry data that can be used with confidence to predict large scale plant behaviour. Experiments for methyl methacrylate polymerisation are reported. Simple procedures are presented for calculating genuine thermo-kinetic parameters from data which includes energy dissipation from the stirrer drive system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0305-1978
    Keywords: Angiospermae ; Elythranthera brunonis ; Elythranthera emarginata ; Glossodia: Caladenia ; Orchidaceae ; Sebacina vermifera ; anthocyanins ; cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside ; delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside ; orchids ; pollination mechanisms
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    Keywords: diarrhoea ; epidemiological methodology ; ethnomedicine ; oral rehydration
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Magnetic resonance angiography ; Carotid arteries
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) hs inherent artifacts due to variation in velocity and direction of flowing blood in the carotid bulb and regions of stenosis. We examined the efficiency of dual 3-inch surface coils to delineate carotid artery flow better. Carotid MRA was performed on ten healthy volunteers and six patients, on a 1.5 T system. A special adapter was constructed to use with 3-inch (receive-only) coils, which were placed over the carotid bifurcations. Routine anterior neck coils were also used. Contiguous axial two-dimensional (45/8.7, 1.5 mm, flip angle 60 °) time-of-flight sequences were used. Image matrix was 256 × 256 with two signals averaged and acquisition time 6–10 min. These images were postprocessed and reformatted into angiographic views using a maximum intensity projection algorithm. Computer simulation of carotid artery blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle based on vessel contours derived from digital subtraction angiography was carried out by finite element analysis. Improved definition of vessel margin, particularly at the carotid bifurcation, and substantially increased signal-to-background ratio of flowing blood were obtained with 3-inchcoils. Apparent loss of signal in the carotid bulb was diminished. In one patient, contiguous flow throughout a high-grade stenosis was well defined, with the surface coil method, while drop-off of signal was observed with routine neck coil imaging.
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