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  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Medicine ; Microbiology ; Bacteriology ; Life sciences ; Life Sciences, general ; Biomedicine general ; Medical Microbiology ; Microbiology ; Bacteriology ; Applied Microbiology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9780387682334
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Mycolic acids ; Mycobacteria ; Thin-layer chromatographic analysis ; Acid methanolysates ; Alka-line methanolysates ; Chemotaxonomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Representative strains of some species of Mycobacterium were degraded by both acid and alkaline methanolysis. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography was used to determine the patterns of mycolic acids and other long-chain components in these methanolysates. Patterns composed of α-, methoxy- and ketomycolates were found in Mycobacterium asiaticum, Mycobacterium bovix, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; a representative of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile also contained lower molecular weight α′-mycolates in addition to these three acids. In representatives or Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, “Mycobacterium novum”, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium terrae, Mycobacterium xenopi, and Mycobacterium sp. MNC 165 α- and ketomycolates were accompanied by ω-carboxymycolates and 2-eicosanol and homologous alcohols which are derived from wax-ester mycolates. Mycobacterium fortuitum and “Mycobacterium giae” contained α′- and epoxymycolates and both serovars of Mycobacterium simiae had a very characteristic pattern of α-, α′- and ketomycolic acids. Comparison with data for other mycobacteria showed the chemotaxonomic significance of these mycolic acid patterns.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Chemotaxonomy ; Lipids ; Nocardioides ; Arthrobacter simplex ; Arthrobacter tumescens ; Nocardioides simplex comb. nov.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Representative strains of Nocardioides, Arthrobacter simplex and Arthrobacter tumescens were degraded by acid methanolysis and the fatty acid esters released examined by thin-layer and gas chromatography. Branchedchain 14-methylpentadecanoic acid (iso-16) was the predominant component in all but one of the Nocardioides strains. Arthrobacter simplex also contained major amounts of this acid whereas A. tumescens had only minor amounts. All of the test strains possessed 15 and 17 carbon straight chain acids, tuberculostearic acid (10-methyloctadecanoic acid) and its 17 and 18-carbon homologues. The fatty acid profiles of Nocardioides strains lacked 13-methyltetradecanoic and heptadecanoic acids which were both present in Arthrobacter simplex and Arthrobacter tumescens. The profiles of these latter organisms were quantitatively different from each other. The polar lipids of the test strains all contained diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol but only Arthrobacter tumescens contained phosphatidylinositol and three unidentified polar lipids. Nocardioides and Arthrobacter simplex strains all contained two very characteristic closely related polar lipids. All of the test strains contained tetrahydrogenated menaquinones with eight isoprene units as the major isoprenologue. The results of the present study support the integrity of the genus Nocardioides and provide a reliable way of distinguishing it from other actinomycetes, such as Streptomyces, which also have LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in the peptidoglycan. The lipid data, together with results from chemical, genetic and phage host range studies, provide sufficient grounds for the transfer of Arthrobacter simplex to Nocardioides as Nocardioides simplex comb. nov. An emended description of the genus Nocarioides is given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A genomic DNA sequence of Streptomyces strain ISP 5485 was cloned, sequenced and compared with corresponding information from nucleic acid data banks. The DNA sequence was unique, but showed homology to DNA coding for the condensing enzyme, 2-oxoacyl synthase, of the deoxyerythronolide B synthase complex (DEBS) from Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338. A subfragment of the sequenced DNA was used to construct a gene-specific probe that formed part of the putative 2-oxoacyl synthase gene. The PCR-amplified and labelled probe was used in hybridization experiments involving 33 streptomycete strains that produced different classes of antibiotics. The probe showed widespread homology with DNA considered to be part of analogous genes within genomes of different polyketide producers. The implications of the probe homology to bacterial chromosomal DNA are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Phylogenetic studies based on the 16S ribosomal gene sequences showed that members of the genus Catellatospora revealed phylogenetic heterogeneity within the family Micromonosporaceae as well as a heterogeneous menaquinone composition. Among them, Catellatospora matsumotoense was closely related to members of the genus Micromonospora, indicating that this organism should be excluded from the genus Catellatospora. On the basis of classical taxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic evidence, Catellatospora matsumotoense is proposed to be transferred to the genus Micromonospora as M. matsumotoense comb. nov.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An artificial neural network was trained to distinguish between three putatively novel species of Streptomyces using normalised, scaled pyrolysis mass spectra from three representative strains of each of the taxa, each sampled in triplicate. Once trained, the artificial neural network was challenged with spectral data from the original organisms, the ‘training set’, from additional members of the putative novel taxa and from over a hundred strains representing six other actinomycete genera. All of the streptomycetes were correctly identified but many of the other actinomycetes were mis-identified. A modified network topology was developed to recognise the mass spectral patterns of the non-streptomycete strains. The resultant neural network correctly identified the streptomycetes, whereas all of the remaining actinomycetes were recognised as unknown organisms. The improved artificial neural network provides a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method of identifying members of the three target streptomycete taxa.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Large numbers of filamentous actinomycetes which formed distinctive red coloured colonies were isolated from three out of four composite soil samples using a medium designed to be selective for members of the Streptomyces violaceoruber clade, a taxon which includes the model organisms “Streptomyces coelicolor” A3(2) and “Streptomyces lividans” 66. The isolation medium, dextran-histidine-sodium chloride-mineral salts agar supplemented with antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics, also supported the growth of representatives of the S. violaceoruber clade. One hundred and ninety one representatives of the isolates that produced red colour colonies on the isolation medium were distributed into four colour groups based on their ability to form distinctive pigments and morphological properties typical of members of the S. violaceoruber clade, an assignment that was confirmed by corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. The selective isolation and characterisation procedures used in the present investigation provide a practical means of determining the taxonomic diversity, geographical distribution and roles of representatives of the S. violaceoruber clade in natural habitats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Carboxydotrophic actinomycetes ; numerical taxonomy ; chemical characterisation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Fifty-four carboxydotrophic actinomycetes isolated from soils and composts were compared through 119 unit characters with representative mesophilic and thermophilic streptomycetes. The data were examined using the Jaccard, pattern and simple matching coefficients and clustering achieved using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages algorithm. Acceptable cophenetic correlation and test error values allowed confidence to be placed in the resultant numerical taxonomies. The carboxydotrophic actinomycetes, which were distinct from cluster-groups corresponding to the mesophilic and thermophilic streptomycetes, formed two major cluster-groups the members of which were examined for the presence of diagnostic chemical markers. All but two of the carboxydotrophic actinomycetes had a profile of chemical properties consistent with their assignment to the genusStreptomyces. Quantitative fatty acid data were examined using the SIMCA package and the two statistically significant groups obtained corresponded with the cluster-groups circumscribed in the numerical phenetic analysis. Members of the two groups were also distinguished on the basis of their phospholipid composition. The two strains that containedmeso- as opposed to LL-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan also showed a distinct chemotaxonomic profile. It was concluded that the carboxydotrophic actinomycetes form a novel and taxonomically diverse group.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: polyphasic taxonomy ; rugose-ornamented spores ; streptomycetes ; Streptomyces violaceusniger clade
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Large numbers of putatively novel streptomycetes were isolated from environmental samples collected from in and around the root system of the tropical angiosperm, Paraserianthes falcataria. Representative isolates were assigned to 37 multi-membered and 107 single membered colour groups based on their ability to form pigments on oatmeal and peptone yeast extract iron agars. The largest taxon, colour group 3, encompassed 94 isolates which had morphological properties typical of members of the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Twelve representatives of this taxon chosen on the basis of Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometric data were compared with representatives of the validly described species which constitute the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Six out of the twelve representative strains were readily distinguished from one another and from the marker strains using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. These organisms were consequently considered to merit species status as Streptomyces asiaticus sp. nov., Streptomyces cangkringensis sp. nov., Streptomyces indonesiensis sp. nov., Streptomyces javensis sp. nov., Streptomyces rhizosphaerius sp. nov. and Streptomyces yogyakartensis sp. nov.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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