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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Galactokinase ; Mutant selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The galactose analogue 2-deoxy-galactose (2DG) has been widely used to select for mutations in the gene encoding the galactose pathway enzyme galactokinase (GalK). We have tested the effect of 2DG on Candida albicans to see if it could be used to obtain GalK- mutants in this diploid asexual yeast. 2DG was shown to be toxic to wild-type cells. Enzyme assays demonstrated that 2DG can induce GalK as efficiently as galactose. Examination of the initital rate of galactose uptake indicated that the galactose transport system is constitutive. 2DG-resistant mutants were isolated from mutagenized cultures and shown to have very low levels of GalK activity. The potential genetic applications of this system of direct mutant selection are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Repetitive DNA ; Pulse-field gel electrophoresis ; Candida albicans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two moderately repetitive DNA elements, Rel-1 and Rel-2, were identified in a screen for clones that hybridized to a Candida albicans minichromosome. Rel-1, a 223-bp sequence, is C. albicans-specific. The 2789-bp Rel-2 sequence hybridizes weakly to C. stellatoidia DNA but not to DNA from several other yeast species. Genomic Southern-blot analysis indicated that Rel-1 and Rel-2 are often closely associated in the genome, suggesting that they may be subsequences of a larger repetitive element. Small subrepeats are located in the nucleotide sequence of both clones. Hybridization demonstrated that Rel-2 contains both repetitive and unique DNA sequences. The repetitive DNA is present on most, and perhaps all, C. albicans chromosomes. The unique sequence maps to chromosome 7; however, in some strains, it is also present on additional chromosomes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: DNA translocations ; Electrophoretic karyotype ; Candida albicans ; Gene mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Rotating-gel electrophoresis and DNA hybridization were used to compare the electrophoretic karyotype of six Candida albicans isolates. The hybridization pattern for 22 cloned sequences, including eight previously unmapped genes, indicates that there are eight pair of homologous chromosomes in each strain. However, since homologous chromosomes can differ in length, it is possible to resolve more than eight bands in some strains. The mapping data demonstrate that linkage groups are generally conserved suggesting that, in spite of gross karyotype differences, there is an underlying similarity in the genome organization of different isolates. The hybridization data also provide direct evidence that DNA translocations and reciprocal translocations contribute to chromosome length polymorphisms in C. albicans.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A method of indirect mutant selection, analogous to the bacterial penicillin technique, has been developed for Physarum polycephalum. The antibiotic netropsin was found to be lethal to growing but not to nongrowing (cycloheximide inhibited) myxamoebae. In reconstruction experiments, a 200 fold enrichment of cycloheximide sensitive over cycloheximide resistant cells was obtained. This technique was used to isolate temperature sensitive mutants. The mutant frequency among survivors was increased at least 40 fold by netropsin selection.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A genomic library of the asexual pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was constructed in the S. cerevisiae vector YEp13. The library contains a representation of the entire genome with a probability of 99%. The expression of the genes of C. albicans in S. cerevisiae was examined and two mutations his3-1 and trp1-289 of S. cerevisiae were complemented by the cloned genes of C. albicans. The hybridization data indicates that the plasmids complementing the mutations of S. cerevisiae contain sequences from C. albicans.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Hybrid plasmids containing the bacterial resistance-transfer factor pBR322 and the yeast leu2 +gene have been used to isolate DNA fragments of Physarum that are capable of initiating DNA replication in a yeast host. Five of forty hybrid plasmids containing Physarum sequences transform leu2 -yeast to Leu+ at high frequency. The resulting Leu+ transformants are characterized by phenotypic instability. Supercoiled plasmid molecules containing pBR322 sequences can be detected in the transformed yeast, indicating that the transforming DNA replicates autonomously. Plasmid DNA isolated from Leu+ yeast can transform leuB bacteria. The hybrid plasmid recovered from the Leu+ bacterial transformants is identical to the original plasmid, indicating structural integrity is maintained during passage through the yeast host. These hybrid plasmids containing Physarum sequences have the same characteristics as those containing autonomously replicating yeast chromosomal sequences. As the temporal sequence of DNA replication is particularly accessible to study in Physarum plasmodia, the functional significance of these segments should be amenable to study.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The haploid myxamoebae of Physarum polycephalum reversibly differentiate to form dormant microcysts under conditions of starvation. The thin-walled cysts can be selective recovered from a cell suspension which has been treated with the surfactant Triton X-100 to lyse amoeboid forms. Excystment, which is initiated by suspension in liquid medium, is inhibited by antibiotics which block protein synthesis. Cysts of drug resistant mutants excyst rapidly in media containing sufficient antibiotic to maintain drug sensitive strains in the encysted state. The selective survival of non-excysted cells following Triton X-100 treatment has been employed to enrich for drug sensitive mutants. Several anisomycin sensitive mutants have been isolated, one of which has been analysed genetically. The possible applications of this mutant enrichment technique are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; Benomyl ; Methotrexate ; Drug resistance ; DNA sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans, is insensitive to the anti-mitotic drug, benomyl, and to the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, methotrexate. Genes responsible for the intrinsic drug resistance were sought by transforming Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast sensitive to both drugs, with genomic C. albicans libraries and screening on benomyl or methotrexate. Restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from benomyl- and methotrexate-resistant colonies indicated that both phenotypes were encoded by the same DNA fragment. Sequence analysis showed that the fragments were nearly identical and contained a long open reading frame of 1694 bp (ORF1) and a small ORF of 446 bp (ORF2) within ORF1 on the opposite strand. By site-directed mutagenesis, it was shown that ORF1 encoded both phenotypes. The protein had no sequence similarity to any known proteins, including β-tubulin, dihydrofolate reductase, and the P-glycoprotein of the multi-drug resistance family. The resistance gene was detected in several C. albicans strains and in C. stellatoidea by DNA hybridization and by the polymerase chain reaction.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 13 (1997), S. 871-880 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; profilin ; PFY1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have isolated the Candida albicans gene for profilin, PFY1. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on regions of high homology were utilized to obtain a polymerase chain reaction-amplified copy of the gene. This was then used as a probe to isolate the gene from a C. albicans genomic library. Our studies indicate that the full-length gene is unstable in Escherichia coli. Several clones were sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence demonstrated homology with profilin proteins from other organisms, most notably Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Northern analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in C. albicans. Attempts to express the gene in S. cerevisiae cells were unsuccessful until the C. albicans promoter was replaced with an S. cerevisiae promoter. Functional complementation of the gene was demonstrated in S. cerevisiae profilin-requiring cells. Antibodies raised to isolated C. albicans profilin protein recognized a protein of the predicted molecular weight when the gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae cells. The sequence of the C. albicans PFY1 gene has been deposited in the Genome Sequence database under Accession Number L3783. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: ornithine decarboxylase ; SPE1 gene ; Candida albicans ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase, SPE1, from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been isolated by complementation of an ornithine decarboxylase-negative (spe1Δ) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four transformants, three of which contain plasmids with the SPE1 gene, were isolated by selection on polyamine-free medium. The C. albicans ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) showed high homology with other eukaryotic ODCs at both the amino acid and nucleic acid levels. The GenBank accession number for this gene is U85005. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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