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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The aim of the present experiment was to study the effect of a long-standing lateral static load on the peri-implant bone. Three beagle dogs were used. The mandibular premolars were extracted and 12 weeks later 3 titanium implants (ITI® Dental Implant System) were installed in each quadrant. Crowns were fitted to all implants 12 weeks after the installation procedure. The anterior and central crowns were fused and connected to the posterior crown by an expansion screw. In the right side of the mandible, the expansion screws were activated every 2 weeks during a 46-week period. During the last 10 weeks of this period, an expansion force similar to that of the right side was applied in the left. The animals were sacrificed and block biopsies of each implant site harvested and prepared for histological analysis. Sites subjected to 10 weeks or 46 weeks of lateral load had a similar (i) distribution of bone markers (ii) proportion of bone density and (iii) degree of bone-to-implant contact. The proportion of fluorochromes was higher at sites subjected to 10 weeks of loading than at sites subjected to 46 weeks of loading.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: A canine study was performed to make a histological and biomechanical evaluation of the interface between bone and two different bioceramic implants. A newly developed glass-ceramic formed by P2O5, CaO, SiO2, and Al2O3, giving a crystal phase composed of CaP2O6—AlPO4—SiP2O7, was compared to hydroxyapatite (HA) coated Ti—6Al—4V implants. A total of 24 implants were inserted into the femoral condyle of 15 adult female golden retriever dogs weighing 20-25 kg. There was a 12 week follow-up. Implants were examined by mechanical testing, histology, histomorphometry, microradiograpic methods, and EDAX analysis. The ultimate shear strength for the HA-coated implants was significantly higher than in the glass-ceramic group. When these values were related to the histomorphometric measurements, the difference could be explained by the tissue-to-implant contact. The glass-ceramic showed direct contact only with nonmineralized, osteoid bone. The HA-coated implants, however, were integrated into the bone. The study indicated that porous glass-ceramic containing AlPO4 causes local osteomalacia and might not be suitable for clinical purposes. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1532-849X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there was a difference between machined and TiO2-blasted implants regarding survival rate and marginal bone loss during a 5-year observation period.Materials and Methods A total of 133 implants (Astra Tech Dental Implants; Astra Tech AB, Mölndal, Sweden) were placed in 50 patients at 6 centers in 4 Scandinavian countries. Forty-eight implants were installed in the maxilla and 85 implants in the mandible. A randomization and a stratification were done, so that each fixed partial prosthesis was supported by at least 1 machined and 1 TiO2-blasted implant. The implant-supported fixed partial prostheses (ISFPP) were fabricated within 2 months after postoperative healing. A total of 52 ISFPP (17 maxillary, 35 mandibular) were inserted. The patients were clinically examined once a year for 5 years. At the annual follow-up, biological as well as technical complications were recorded.Results Of the 133 implants placed, 3 were reported as failed after 5 years of follow-up, resulting in an overall cumulative survival rate of 97.6%. The cumulative implant survival rates were 100% for the TiO2-blasted implants and 95.1% for the machined implants. No significant difference in survival was, however, found between the machined and TiO2-blasted implants after 5 years. The mean marginal bone loss in the maxilla was 0.21 ± 0.83 mm (SD) for the machined implants and 0.51 ± 1.11 mm (SD) for the TiO2-blasted implants during the 5-year observation period. In the mandible, the mean marginal loss was 0.22 ± 1.13 mm for the machined implants and 0.52 ± 1.07 mm for the TiO2-blasted implants from baseline to the 5-year examination. No significant difference in marginal bone loss between the 2 surface groups was found during the 5-year observation period.Conclusions The present study shows good 5-year results with small ISFPP in the mandible, as well as in the maxilla. No significant differences were found in failure rate and marginal bone loss around implants with a machined rather than a TiO2-blasted surface.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to compare the anchorage of TiO2-blasted screw and cylindrical implants with conventionally used machine-produced screw and cylindrical implants inserted immediately in extraction sockets on dogs. 6 adult mongrel dogs had 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally and 24 commercial pure titanium implants were placed immediately in extraction sockets and covered with mucoperiosteum. Each dog had inserted 4 implants: 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles; 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant with machine-produced (m.p.) surface (controls). After a healing period of 12 weeks, 16 implants from 4 animals were used for removal torque test, which demonstrated that significantly higher removal torque force was needed to unscrew the implants blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles, than the normal m.p. implants. The medians for the TiO2-blasted screw and cylindrical implants were 〉 150 Ncm and 10.5 Ncm, respectively, while the values for the m.p. implants were 60 Ncm and 35 Ncm, respectively. The SEM investigation demonstrated a high irregularity of the TiO2-blasted surface compared to the machined surface. The R, and R, values for surface roughness were higher for the TiO2-blasted implants than for the normal m.p. implants. Histomorphometrically, the arithmetic mean of the direct bone-implant contact fraction was 69%. There was no significant difference in direct bone-implant contact length fraction between TiO2-blasted implants and the control implants. The implants blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles in this study showed a better anchorage than implants with a machine-produced surface. The screw implants showed a better anchorage than the cylindrical implants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In 50 partially edentulous patients, 133 (48 maxillary; 85 mandibular) Astra Tech dental implants of 2 different surface textures (machined; TiO-blasted) were alternately installed, supporting 52 fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Before abutment connection 2 machined implants (1 mandibular; 1 maxillary) were found to be non-osseointegrated and were replaced. Another implant could not be restored due to a technical complication. Two FPDs were remade because of technical complications, both because of abutment fractures. Thus, after 2 years in function, the cumulative survival rates were 97.7% and 95.7% for implants and prostheses, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between the 2 types of implants, 100%(TiO-blasted) vs 95.3%(machined), P=0.24. After 2 years in function, when both jaw and type of implants were combined, the mean (SD) marginal bone loss was 0.24 (0.69) mm. No statistically significant difference in bone loss was found between the 2 tvues of implant after 2 years of loading, 0.04 (0.82) mm, P〉0.30.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration.Material and methods: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo was administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6 weeks (left tibia). Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created. Removal torque test (RMT) was performed at the distal implants. Ground sections were made from the proximal and the central bone beds. The fraction of mineralized bone in contact to the implant (BIC) and the bone density within the implant threads (BD-i) were determined for the bone–implant specimens. For the central bone beds without implants the bone density (BD-c) in the bone defects was determined.Results: No significant difference in RMT values was found between the test and the control group. Histomorphometric measurements of the BIC and the peri-implant BD-i showed no significant differences between the test and the control group after 2 or 4 weeks. Significant differences were, however, found between the 2- and 4-week samples. In the central bone beds, there was no significant difference in BD-c between the test and the control group.Conclusion: Nicotine exposure in a short period of time did not have a significant impact on bone healing or implant osseointegration in rabbits.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of an enhanced systematic dose of nicotine on osseointegration of titanium implants.Material and methods: Sixteen female rabbits received either nicotine (n=8) or saline (n=8) administered subcutaneously via mini-osmotic pumps for 2 months. The pump delivered 6 μg/kg/min of nicotine for the animals in the test group. Blood was withdrawn and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. Thirty-two titanium implants were inserted into the femur and tibia of all rabbits after 4 weeks and after 6 weeks of nicotine/placebo exposure. Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created. Biomechanical evaluation by (i) resonance frequency analysis test (RFA) on all implants after insertion and before sacrifice and (ii) removal torque test (RMT) on tibial implants before sacrifice was performed. All implants placed in the femur were processed to undecalcified ground sections. The percentage of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and of bone area within the threads (BD-i) were measured.Results: No significant difference in RMT and RFA values was found between the test and the control group. Histomorphometric measurements of the BIC and the peri-implant BD-i showed no significant differences between the test and the control group after 2 or after 4 weeks.Conclusion: Nicotine exposure for a short period of time even in a high dose did not have a significant impact on implant osseointegration in rabbits.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lateral static load induced by an expansion force on the bone/implant interface and adjacent peri-implant bone. In 3 beagle dogs, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars were extracted bilaterally. Twelve weeks later 8 implants of the ITI Dental Implant System were placed in each dog. Crowns connected in pairs were screwed on the implants 12 weeks after implant installation. The connected crowns contained an orthodontic expansion screw yielding 4 loading units in each dog. Clinical registrations, standardized radiographs and fluorochrome labeling were carried out during the 24-week loading period. Biopsies were harvested and processed for ground sectioning. The sections were subjected to histological examination. No evident marginal bone loss was observed at either test or control sites. The bone density and the mineralized bone-to-implant contact were higher adjacent to the lateral loaded implants than at the unactivated control sites. It is suggested that the static load applied to implants in a lateral direction resulted in a structural adaptation of the peri-implant bone.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The purposes of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar in half of the patients. BMC measurements were performed in vivo by dual-photon scanner at baseline, just after attachment insertion, at 2-year and 5-year visits. Mandibular osteoporosis was estimated by comparing baseline BMC values with normal mandibular BMC values for young adults of same gender. Loss of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) this effect seems to be independent of attachment system and 3) mandibular osteoporosis prior to implant treatment may be a risk factor for bone loss around implants. However, this treatment can be recommended also in osteoporotic persons.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A qualitative and quantitative histological study of the initial healing response adjacent to 24 submerged and non-submerged implants placed in the lower jaws of 6 monkeys is presented. The histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in mineralized bone-implant contact length between submerged and non-loaded non-submerged titanium implants. The infrabony defects around some of the implants on the radiographs were significantly correlated to the histological measurements. Qualitatively, a greater number of gingival inflammation cells and a longer junctional epithelium were seen adjacent to non-submerged implants without oral hygiene than were seen adjacent to non-submerged implants with oral hygiene in the initial healing period.
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