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  • 1
    Unknown
    Weinheim : Wiley-VCH
    Call number: QR41:23
    Keywords: Bacteria ; Microbiology
    Pages: xi, 388 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9783527328451
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    QR41:23 available
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Sporomusa sphaeroides ; Sporomusa ovata ; Spore formation ; N-methyl compounds ; Degradation of betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine ; Acetogenic anaerobes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new genus of strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, banana-shaped bacteria is described. Cells formed spores and were motile by means of up to 15 laterally inserted flagella. Nitrate or sulfate were not used as electron acceptor. Organic substrates that were fermented included N-methyl compounds, such as betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine and sarcosine, primary alcohols, hydroxy fatty acids, and 2,3-butanediol. In addition, molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide were fermented to acetate. The latter was the characteristic fermentation product in general. During growth on betaine, trimethylamine was formed in addition. The degradation of N,N-dimethylglycine yielded acetate, monomethylamine, and trimethylamine. The presence of cytochrome b and of ubiquinone in the cells was shown. The deoxyribonuleic acid base composition of the strains was between 41.3 and 47.4 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The name Sporomusa is proposed for this new genus. On the basis of the DNA-DNA homology values obtained, the shape of the spores and some other properties, the isolated strains were assigned to two species. Names proposed: Sporomusa sphaeroides and Sporomusa ovata. The type species is S. sphaeroides and the type strains are strain E, DSM 2875 (S. sphaeroides) and strain H1, DSM 2662 (S. ovata).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Acetobacterium weiringae ; Acetobacter aceti ; Internal pH ; Acetic acid production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular pH was measured in growing Acetobacterium wieringae and Acetobacter aceti with an acid equilibrium distribution method. [14C]-acetylsalicylic acid, [14C-benzoic acid and [14C]-acetic acid were used as ΔpH-indicators. The extracellular pH of Acetobacterium wieringae decreased from 7.0 to 5.0 during growth; accordingly, the intracellular pH changed from 7.1 to 5.5, and a ΔpH between 0.1 and 0.65 (interior more alkaline) was maintained. Corresponding results were obtained for Acetobacter aceti. The external pH and the internal pH decreased in parallel from 6.2 to 3.5 and from 5.8 to 3.9, respectively. This demonstrates that neither the anaerobic nor the aerobic acetogen was able to maintain a large ΔpH in the presence of high concentrations of acetic acid.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Acetate ; Acetobacterium woodii ; Homoacetogens ; Counterflow ; Transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Intracellular and extracellular acetate concentrations of Acetobacterium woodii DSM 1030 were determined during growth or incubation of resting cell suspensions. The internal concentrations during growth decreased from initially 350 mM to 145 mM at the end of the experiment. The intracellular pH was lowered from 7.5 to 6.6 and the ΔpH was enlarged from 0.2 to 0.6 units. Both, growing and resting cells of A. woodii showed no equilibrium between internal and external acetate concentrations during glucose consumption; the internal concentrations were always higher than expected assuming equal concentrations of the free acid inside and outside the cells. From counterflow experiments it is suggested that acetate does not only leave A. woodii cells by passive diffusion but also by carrier-mediated transport.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Clostridium halophilum sp. nov. ; Clostridium litorale sp. nov. ; Marine and hypersaline sediments ; Halophilic bacteria ; Stickland reaction ; Betaine fermentation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two new mesophilic, sporeforming, gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated which utilized betaine in the Stickland reaction. Strain M1 was obtained from pasteurized hypersaline sediments. Cells were motile rods and formed spherical terminal spores. Betaine was used with hydrogen and several amino acids as electron donors. In addition, several carbohydrates served as substrates. Growth required 1.5% NaCl with an optimum at 6.0% NaCl. The guanine plus cytosine content of the DNA was 26.9%. This strain is described as a new species, Clostridium halophilum. Strain W6 was isolated from marine sediments. Cells were motile rods and formed ovoid, subterminal spores. Betaine was used with hydrogen and several amino acids as electron donors. Carbohydrates were not fermented. Growth optimum was at 1.0% NaCl. The guanine plus cytosine content of the DNA was 26.1%. This strain is described as a new species, Clostridium litorale.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Acetobacterium woodii ; Alcohol dehydrogenase ; Coenzyme A-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ; Enzyme purification ; Ethanol fermentation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Coenzyme A-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH) of ethanol-grown cells of Acetobacterium woodii was purified to apparent homogeneity; a 28-fold purification was achieved with 13% yield. The enzyme proved to be oxygen-sensitive and was inactive in the absence of dithioerythritol. During the purification procedure addition of 1 mM MgCl2 was necessary to maintain enzyme activity. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was separated from ACDH during anion exchange chromatography using DEAE Sephacel. A part of the ACDH activity coeluted with ADH, but both could be separately eluted from a Cibacron Blue 3GA-Agarose column, revealing the same subunit structure and activity band for ACDH as found before and, thus, indicating an aggregation of the enzyme. The remaining ADH activity could be separated by gel filtration. For the native ACDH a molecular mass of 255 kDa was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and of 272 kDa by gel filtration using Superose 12. The enzyme subunit sizes were 28 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively, indicating a α4β4 structure for the active form. The enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of several straight chain aldehydes although it was most active with acetaldehyde. NADH strongly inhibited oxidation of acetaldehyde whereas NADPH had no effect. The inhibition was noncompetitive.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 225-229 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary An experimental method for the determination of the 14C-distribution in poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid is described. Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid is converted to crotonic acid and further oxidized with KMnO4 to acetic acid and CO2. The activity in the carboxyl-groups of crotonic acid and acetic acid was measured following Schmidt-degradation.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung der 14C-Verteilung in Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure wird angegeben. Man überführt Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure in Crotonsäure und oxydiert diese mit Kaliumpermanganat zu Essigsäure und CO2. Die Carboxylgruppen der Crotonsäure und der Essigsäure werden durch Schmidt-Reaktion erfaßt.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 230-235 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Hydrogenomonas H 16 accumulates poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid at the end of the exponential growth phase or in a mineral nutrient solution without a nitrogen source and containing a number of organic acids. Following the incorporation of specific 14C-labelled organic acids, the 14C-distribution in poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid was determined. The results reveal, that acetic acid and crotonic acid are incorporated into the polymer as a whole, lactic acid however, with the loss of C1 and succinic acid following two decarboxylation steps. In an atmosphere of hydrogen and oxygen the assimilation of organic substrates is carried out by means of the energy from the oxygen-hydrogen reaction.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Am Ende der exponentiellen Wachstumsphase oder in einem Mineralmedium ohne Stickstoffquelle bildet Hydrogenomonas H 16 aus einer Reihe von organischen Säuren Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure. Nach dem Einbau von spezifisch 14C-markierten organischen Säuren wurde die 14C-Verteilung in der Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß Essigsäure und Crotonsäure als Ganzes, Milchsäure unter Verlust von C1 und Bernsteinsäure nach zwei Decarboxylierungsschritten in das Polymere eingebaut werden. Unter Knallgas erfolgt die Assimilation der organischen Substrate mit Hilfe der Energie aus der Knallgasreaktion.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 47 (1964), S. 236-250 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHBA) isolated from Hydrogenomonas H 16 following an 8 sec 14CO2-incorporation is already uniformly labelled. It was shown, that the synthesis of PHBA from carbon dioxide takes place via 3-phosphoglyceric acid, pyruvic acid, acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. During the synthesis of PHBA, one of three CO2-molecules previously fixed is lost in an oxydative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid. It is therefore evident that the CO2-fixation of growing cells will be larger than that of cells storing PHBA. Only one tenth of the ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase, which would be necessary for the measured CO2-fixation, could be determined in the crude extract of Hydrogenomonas H 16. The carboxylase was purified about 20-fold.
    Notes: Zysammenfassung Bereits nach 8 sec 14CO2-Fixierung ist die aus Hydrogenomonas H 16 isolierte Poly-β-hydroxybuttersäure (PHBS) gleichmäßig radioaktiv markiert. Es werden Beweise dafür erbracht, daß die PHBS aus Kohlendioxyd über 3-Phosphoglycerinsäure, Brenztraubensäure, Acetyl-CoA und Acetacetyl-CoA synthetisiert wird. Während der PHBS-Synthese geht so eines von drei fixierten CO2-Molekülen durch oxydative Decarboxylierung der Brenztraubensäure wieder verloren. Damit steht im Einklang, daß die CO2-Fixierungsleistung wachsender Zellen größer ist als die PHBS-speichernder. Nur ein Zehntel der Ribulose-1,5-diphosphat-Carboxylase, die für die gemessene autotrophe CO2-Fixierungskapazität erforderlich wäre, konnte im Rohextrakt von Hydrogenomonas H 16 nachgewiesen werden. Das Enzym ließ sich 20 fach anreichern.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Four clostridial species (C. pasteurianum, C. butylicum, C. butyricum and C. tetanomorphum) grow on pyruvate. Two other species (C. roseum and C. rubrum) only ferment this compound; this is probably due to their inability to synthesize hexose phosphates from pyruvate (fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and pyruvate carboxylase are absent). The fermentation of pyruvate by the above clostridia yields acetate, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and small amounts of compounds more reduced than acetate. Hydrogen pressure increases the amount of ethanol, butanol and butyrate formed during the fermentation of pyruvate. Since C. roseum and C. rubrum contain a ferredoxin: NADP reductase it seems likely that NADPH2 is the coenzyme involved in ethanol formation. In accordance with this acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases exhibit activity with NADPH2. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of the clostridia under investigation is NAD specific and so is the β-hydroxy-butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase with the exception of C. kluyveri. The specific activity of hydrogenase and the coenzyme specificity of NAD(P) reductase vary among the clostridial species.
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