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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A resonant cavity technique was used to measure the dielectric constant and loss tangent of ceramic insulators at a frequency near 100 MHz during pulsed fission reactor irradiation near room temperature. Tests were performed on single crystal and several different grades of polycrystalline Al2O3, MgAl2O4, AlN, and Si3N4. Lead shielding experiments were performed for some of the irradiations in order to examine the importance of gamma ray versus neutron irradiation effects. With the exception of AlN, the dielectric constant of all of the ceramics decreased slightly (〈0.2% change) during the pulsed fission reactor irradiation. The dielectric constant of AlN was observed to slightly increase during irradiation. Significant transient increases in the loss tangent to values as high as 6×10−3 occurred during pulsed reactor irradiation with peak ionizing and displacements per atom (dpa) radiation fields of 4.2×104 Gy/s and 2.4×10−6 dpa/s, respectively. The loss tangent measured during irradiation for the different ceramics did not show any correlation with the preirradiation or postirradiation values. Analysis of the results indicates that the transient increases in loss tangent are due to radiation induced increases in the electrical conductivity. The loss tangent increases were proportional to the ionizing dose rate in all materials except for AlN, which exhibited a dose rate exponent of ∼1.6. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Experiments involving plasma improvement, confinement scaling, bootstrap currents, and edge fluctuations have been carried out in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron [Fusion Technol. 10, 179 (1986)]. Average densities n¯e≤9×1019 m−3 have been obtained, with global energy confinement times τ@B|E≤20 msec. Confinement times generally follow the stellarator/torsatron empirical scaling law, τSL =0.17×P−0.58n0.69eB0.84a2R0.75 (with τSL in seconds, power P in megawatts, density ne in 1020 m−3, and plasma radius a and major radius R in meters). Gas injection during neutral beam injection (NBI) causes increases in ne, so that τ*E does not decrease during NBI. Edge plasma fluctuations are found to exhibit a mode change near the peak of the energy confinement time. Plasma currents observed during electron cyclotron heating have been identified as bootstrap currents.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron [Fusion Technol. 10, 179 (1986)] has completed experiments focusing on microwave scattering measurements of density fluctuations and transport studies utilizing the modulation of dimensionless parameters. Microwave scattering measurements of electron density fluctuations in the core of low-collisionality electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasmas show features that might be evidence of trapped electron instabilities. Starting from gyro-Bohm scaling, the additional dependence of confinement on the dimensionless parameters ν* and β (collisionality and beta) has been investigated by modulating each of these parameters separately, revealing the additional favorable dependence, τE∝τgBν*−0.18β+0.3.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to −5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to −5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Heating and current drive with ICRF is one of the major missions of TPX and is crucial to its success. In contrast to the integrated nature of core diagnostic programs, diagnostics that measure ICRF propagation and edge interactions are often assigned lower priority, have not been included in the base diagnositics set, or were included as upgrades. This can result in an incomplete and unoptimized set of measurements. Thus it is important that an integrated set of diagnostics (engineered along with the antenna design), capable of fully diagnosing the interaction, propagation, and absorption of the ICRF be available for TPX. The parameters of interest include: coupling of the ICRF antenna to the plasma, launched spectrum, wave propagation, edge plasma interactions, electron heating, and current drive, and fast ion power deposition and losses. The diagnostic set should be designed so it can be upgraded for control of loading and spectrum by providing feedback information for adjusting phase, power level, fuel gas injection, and plasma position. The proposed set focuses on wave propagation, launched spectrum, absorption, and measuring and comparing the plasma edge properties in the near vicinity of the antenna with that measured at a large toroidal distance from them; thus many would be installed as toroidally separated indentical sets. In addition to the planned core diagnostic set, the ICRF specific diagnostics proposed for TPX include: edge density reflectometers, RF fluctuation reflectometers, fixed and moveable Langmuir probes, visible and IR cameras with spectroscopic line filters, rf magnetic loop probes, local ion energy analyzer, direct ion loss detectors, charge exchange analyzers, fast response ECE, and edge temperature ECE. The anticipated approach is one in which individual diagnostics could be provided by industry, universities, or laboratories but overall coordination, driven by specific ICRF issues, would be required. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Recent experiments in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1990 (IAEA, Vienna, in press)] have emphasized the role of magnetic configuration control in transport studies. Long-pulse plasma operation up to 20 sec has been achieved with electron cyclotron heating (ECH). With neutral beam injection (NBI) power of ≥1 MW, global energy confinement times of 30 msec have been obtained with line-average densities up to 1.3×1020 m−3. The energy confinement and the operational space in ATF are roughly the same as those in tokamaks of similar size and field. The empirical scaling observed is similar to gyro-reduced Bohm scaling with favorable dependences on density and field offsetting an unfavorable power dependence. The toroidal current measured during ECH is identified as the bootstrap current. The observed currents agree well with predictions of neoclassical theory in magnitude and in parametric dependence. Variations of the magnetic configuration in discharges heated by ECH alone and by NBI change plasma transport and plasma profiles. Magnetic fluctuations respond to the concomitant pressure profile variations. Comparative studies of edge fluctuations in the Texas experimental tokamak (TEXT) [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1990 (IAEA, Vienna, in press)] and the ATF stellarator showed remarkable similarity in the levels of fluctuations and the existence of a velocity shear layer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Fueling and heating of tandem mirror end cells by rf at the ion-cyclotron frequency have been studied experimentally in the Phaedrus Tandem Mirror. The end cell density is found to increase linerly with rf voltage. The total plasma energy is observed to increase with rf power with no evidence of saturation at high power. The plasma axial length decreases with increasing rf power down to a length of approximately the distance between the two resonance locations in the end cell. The highest density and average ion energy are achieved with the resonance closest to the midplane. It is necessary to assume that the rf electric field at the resonance decreases with increasing density and with distance from the antenna in order to model the ion particle and power balance. The particle and power balance model predicts that dense, hot end cells may be maintained with E+∼1 V/cm and a fueling efficiency of a few percent when the resonance is close to the midplane because of better ion confinement and small plasma volume. Monte Carlo simulation of the trapping process shows that E2+ ∝T1.5ic is required to maintain a given rf trapping efficiency.
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