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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Antisera were prepared against cell material from 3 strains of A. radiobacter and 6 of A. tumefaciens. Agar diffusion and immune absorption techniques revealed 3 antigens common to each strain of these organisms. However, 5 different lipopolysaccharide antigens occurred in the 9 test strains. There was no obvious species differences in the distribution of these antigens. Mannose, and possibly glucuronic acid were immunologically active in one of the lipopolysaccharides. The agrobacterial antisera were further crosstested with antigenic material for 34 strains of Rhizobium. Fast-growing rhizobia showed extensive cross-reaction, but only one of 7 R. lupini strains tested reacted with any antiserum.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Characterization of 13 isolates of luminescent bacteria from specimens of Cleidopus gloriamaris has revealed differences between these organisms and previously described species of Photobacterium. Further studies on the biochemical and serological attributes of these and other luminescent bacteria are essential, before ecological studies on the fish-microbe symbiosis are possible.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 148 (1987), S. 100-106 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Bradyrhizobium ; Bacteroid ; Viable ; Strain ; Survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Homogenates from soybean nodules, formed by 12 strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were plated into yeast-extract mannitol agar containing 3 or 37 g mannitol 1-1. Viable counts ranged from 8.298 to 11.265 log10 cells-gram nodule-1. When monitored over the life cycle of the symbiosis, the viability of strains USDA 110 and USDA 123 increased with days after planting (DAP), and at 70 DAP was 95% and 81%, respectively. By contrast, the viability of USDA 38 bacteroids decreased with time, and at 70 DAP was only 1.9%. At 49 DAP, nodules induced by USDA 38 had significantly fewer bacteroids per peribacteroid membrane than those formed by USDA 110 or USDA 123, and at 70 DAP, 27% of the USDA 38 bacteroids showed some degree of degeneration. Viable counts of USDA 123 and USDA 110 bacteroids, isolated from the nodules of 12 different cultivars, ranged from 10.963 to 11.463 and from 10.683 to 11.117 log10 viable cells-gram nodule-1, respectively. Varying the osmolarity of the medium had no predictable effect on bacteroid viability. When surface-sterilized nodules of IPAGO 587 (high bacteroid viability) and USDA 38 (low bacteroid viability) were inoculated into a nonsterile silt loam soil, at rates equivalent to 5.0×108 and 5.0×106 viable bacteroids g-1 soil, respectively, and then incubated at 28° C for 60 days, 4.3×104 and 1.5×104 surviving cells g-1 soil, respectively, were recovered. Thus, despite differences due to host and strain variation, bacteroid viability appears to be unrelated to persistence of individual strains following an annual legume crop cycle.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Phaseolus ; Competition ; Nodulation ; Temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study examines the speed of nodulation of 20 strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv phaseoli, and relates this trait to the competitive performance of these strains with Phaseolus vulgaris L. At 25/20°C day/night temperature, and with 107 cells applied per growth pouch, there was a strong positive correlation between the speed of nodulation and the competitiveness of strains with the nod + fix− reference strain UMR 1116. Strains UMR 1084, 1125, 1165, 1173 and 1384 combined good competitive performance with extensive nodulation in the uppermost root regions. When inoculant levels in the RTM studies were reduced to 103 cells per pouch no correlation between the apparent competitiveness of strains and their speed in nodulation was evident, presumably because cells had to undergo multiplication before infection. Nodulation was also delayed when growth temperatures were raised to 31/26°C, but a correlation was still evident between competitive performance and nodulation in the region 0.1 to 5.0 mm below the RTM at the time of inoculation. From these results speed of nodulation can be used to estimate the competitive potential of Rhizobium strains, but only under carefully regulated conditions. The effects of inoculation level and temperature on the relationship between speed of nodulation and strain competitiveness could explain the inconsistent results obtained in earlier studies on this topic.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An agar plate method for the testing of substrate utilisation is described, and is applied to 108 strains of bacteria belonging to the generaRhizobium andAgrobacterium. With this method, utilisation can be observed without misleading results due to the utilisation of amino acids and other substances present in the medium. Major differences in the utilisation of carbohydrates by the tested species are apparent. In general, strains of fast-growing root-nodule bacteria and agrobacteria were similar in reaction, giving vigorous growth with most of the carbon sources tested. Slow-growing root-nodule bacteria were more specific in their requirements, with most strains utilising only glucose, sodium citrate, xylose, mannitol, arabinose, galactose and fructose. Only six of the 108 strains tested utilised dextrin. The results are related to previous studies on rhizobial taxonomy, and the value of carbohydrate utilisation as a diagnostic feature is discussed.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 31 (1965), S. 349-354 
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This paper reports an investigation of the extracellular polysaccharides produced by 26 strains ofRhizobium andAgrobacterium. Strains ofRhizobium leguminosarum andR. phaseoli produced a water-soluble polysaccharide containing glucose, glucuronic acid and 4-0-methylglucuronic acid. These substances were also identified in the polysaccharide of a single strain fromLotus uliginosus. Glucose was the only detectable component in the polysaccharide produced by strains ofAgrobacterium radiobacter andA. tumefaciens. The polysaccharides obtained from slow-growing rhizobia were not freely water-soluble. Glucose, mannose, rhamnose, galactose and 4-0-methylglucuronic acid were identified as components of this extracellular material. These results are related to previous studies on rhizobial taxonomy and to the infection process in legumes.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 29 (1963), S. 281-291 
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Antisera prepared against 58 strains of root-nodule bacteria and against 16 strains belonging to the genusAgrobacterium were tested against 113 strains ofRhizobium, 20 strains ofAgrobacterium and 20 strains of other, possibly related, bacteria. Three serologically distinct groups of root-nodule bacteria were noted: (1)Rh. trifolii, Rh. leguminosarum andRh. phaseoli; (2)Rh. lupini, Rh. japonicum andRhizobium spp.; (3)Rh. meliloti. Strains ofRh. meliloti showed serological affinities withA. radiobacter andA. tumefaciens. All groups showed wider flagellar than somatic agglutination, and many different serotypes were apparent. The groupings obtained from this investigation are compared with those derived from other taxonomic studies, and the use of serological methods in rhizobial classification is discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Lipopolysaccharides were prepared from 9Agrobacterium and 16Rhizobium strains. Glucose and rhamnose were the only monosaccharides present in all preparations, but mannose, glucosamine and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid were common components. Fucose (present in 9 strains), galactose (10 strains), xylose (3 strains) and arabinose (1 strain) were also detected but there was no evidence of dideoxy sugars, of heptose, or of other hexosamines. The possible significance of the results in the serological classification ofRhizobium andAgrobacterium, and in host selection ofRhizobium is discussed.
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