Genes, Vol. 9, Pages 405: Sequencing of Supernumerary Chromosomes of Red Fox and Raccoon Dog Confirms a Non-Random Gene Acquisition by B Chromosomes Genes doi: 10.3390/genes9080405 Authors: Alexey I. Makunin Svetlana A. Romanenko Violetta R. Beklemisheva Polina L. Perelman Anna S. Druzhkova Kristina O. Petrova Dmitry Yu. Prokopov Ekaterina N. Chernyaeva Jennifer L. Johnson Anna V. Kukekova Fengtang Yang Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith Alexander S. Graphodatsky Vladimir A. Trifonov B chromosomes (Bs) represent a variable addition to the main karyotype in some lineages of animals and plants. Bs accumulate through non-Mendelian inheritance and become widespread in populations. Despite the presence of multiple genes, most Bs lack specific phenotypic effects, although their influence on host genome epigenetic status and gene expression are recorded. Previously, using sequencing of isolated Bs of ruminants and rodents, we demonstrated that Bs originate as segmental duplications of specific genomic regions, and subsequently experience pseudogenization and repeat accumulation. Here, we used a similar approach to characterize Bs of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) and the Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides Gray). We confirm the previous findings of the KIT gene on Bs of both species, but demostrate an independent origin of Bs in these species, with two reused regions. Comparison of gene ensembles in Bs of canids, ruminants, and rodents once again indicates enrichment with cell-cycle genes, development-related genes, and genes functioning in the neuron synapse. The presence of B-chromosomal copies of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and tissue differentiation may indicate importance of these genes for B chromosome establishment.