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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A review is presented of investigations of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in indoor air of buildings of different classifications (dwellings, offices, schools, hospitals) and categories (established, new and complaint buildings). Measured concentrations obtained from the published literature and from research in progress overseas were pooled so that VOC concentration profiles could be derived for each building classification/category. Mean concentrations of individual compounds in established buildings were found to be generally below 50 μg/m3, with most below 5 μg/m3. Concentrations in new buildings were much greater, often by an order of magnitude or more, and appeared to arise from construction materials and building contents. The nature of these sources and approaches to reduce indoor air concentrations by limiting source VOC emissions is discussed. Total VOC (TVOC) concentrations were substantially higher than concentrations of any individual VOCs in all situations, reflecting the large number of compounds present, but interpretation of such measurements was limited by the lack of a common definition for TVOC relevant to occupant exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 39 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Commercial preparations of colophony (rosin) used for patch testing are made from unmodified rosin in pet. and may be stored for some considerable time before being used. This would be satisfactory if the composition and dermatological activity of the preparations were both reproducible and stable, but investigations by the authors have shown that the resin acids undergo progressive and substantial oxidation and that the dermatological activity of the preparations increases significantly with time. This may be a cause of inconsistent patch test results unless the composition can be stabilized. Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of a raw rosin sample and its commercial patch test preparation has shown that they both contained the same resin acids, but the concentration of the abietic type resin acids was found to be lower in the patch test preparations. The degradation of resin acids is due to their atmospheric oxidation, which may occur during the preparation and storage of the commercial rosin patch test preparation. The susceptibility of individual resin acids to atmospheric oxidation was demonstrated by analysing a sample of raw Portuguese gum rosin, which was then left exposed to air and light. Most of the resin acids were found to undergo oxidation at a rate which gradually diminished. More importantly, it is presumed that the concentration of oxidized resin acids increased correspondingly, and these have been shown to be more dermatologically active than the unoxidised resin acids. The rate of decrease of resin acid concentration was found to be in the following order: neoabietic 〉 levopimaric and palustric 〉 abietic 〉 dehydroabetic acid. The pimaric type resin acids were found to be relatively inert to atmospheric oxidation when compared with the abietic type resin acids. Patch testing with the resulting partly oxidized Portuguese rosin produced positive reactions at a 35% higher frequency than the raw Portuguese rosin. The study demonstrates that the allergic potential of unmodified rosin may increase with exposure to air and light. It is therefore recommended that rosin preparations are analysed routinely as part of a quality control programme, which will enable better validation and comparison of patch test results from different dermatological centres. Since the oxidized resin acids are the main allergens in unmodified rosin, it is important that the concentration of the oxidized resin acids is kept high as well as constant in commercial patch test preparations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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