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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  The space-lumped two-variable neuron model is studied. Extension of the neural model by adding a simple synaptic current allows the demonstration of neural interactions. The production of synchronous burst activity in this simple two-neuron excitatory loop is modeled, including the influence of random background excitatory input. The ability of the neuron model to integrate inputs spatially and temporally is shown. Two refractory periods after stimuli were identified and their role in burst cessation is demonstrated. Our findings show that simple neural units without long-lasting membrane processes are capable of generating long lasting patterns of activity. The results of simulation of simple background activity suggest that an increase in background activity tends to cause decreased activity of the network. This phenomenon, as well as the existence of two refractory periods, allows for burst cessation without inhibition in this simple model.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Medial terminal accessory optic nucleus ; Rat ; Rabbit and cat ; Neuron morphology ; Dendritic architecture ; Golgi impregnation methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The neurons of the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) of the accessory optic system (AOS) have been studied in the rat, rabbit and cat in Golgi-Cox and Golgi-Kopsch impregnated brain sections. The present anatomical findings permit a division of the MTN of these species into dorsal and ventral components (MTNd, MTNv), in agreement with other investigations. The MTNd contains predominantly linear-bipolar and linear-multipolar shaped neurons with cell bodies that measure in the range of 25–50 μm. These neurons have 2 to 4 primary dendrites which, along with their smaller dendritic branches, are oriented in the plane of the long axis of the MTN (i.e. from ventromedial to dorsolateral). These linear-bipolar and linear-multipolar cells represent 70–80% of the neurons of the MTNd as seen in the Golgi impregnated sections. The remaining 20–30% of the MTNd neurons are nearly all multipolar in shape with somata measuring in the range of 15–25 μm. An occasional multipolar neuron is larger, has a soma that measures around 30–60 μm and has dendrites which extend outward from the cell body to cover large areas of the MTNd. There was considerable extension of the dendrites of MTNd neurons into the MTNv; however, the dendrites of MTNd neurons were not observed extending into the adjacent substantia nigra (SN) or ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Tsai (1925). Conversely, the dendrites of neurons in the neighboring SN and VTA course along the borders of the MTN but only occasionally extend into the MTN. The neuron population of the MTNv consists almost entirely of small-multipolar shaped cells with somata measuring from 15–25 μm and dendritic trees resembling those described for multipolar cells of the MTNd. A small number of neurons of the ventral division are medium-multipolar in shape with cell bodies that measure approximately 30–60 μm. Typically, these cells have several dendrites which extend ventrally within the MTNv and one or more dendrites that extend either across the MTNv or dorsally into the MTNd. Only a few linear-bipolar and linear-multipolar neurons were observed in the MTNv. The present findings are discussed in relation to anatomical, physiological, and histochemical studies on the MTN.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Aneurysm ; Internal carotid artery ; Pediatrics ; CT ; Angiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aneurysms in the petrous or cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery in childhood are extremely rare. Only two such cases have been previously reported. We present a case of bilateral giant intrapetrous aneurysms in a young female. CT was especially helpful in evaluating the absolute size of these aneurysms. This case is unique in that we demonstrated the temporal evolution of internal carotid aneurysms on follow-up angiography.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2137
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Zea mays L.), but there is a lack of synchrony between cover crop N release and corn N uptake. This synchrony may be enhanced by varying the cover crop spring desiccation time and subsequent residue management. A field study was established to determine (i) the effect of rye + hairy vetch spring desiccation timing on cover crop biomass, N content, and C∝N ratio and (ii) the effect of the cover crop species, spring desiccation timing, and residue management on soil moisture content, soil mineral N concentration, corn tissue N concentration, and corn grain yield. Chemical desiccation times were either the boot stage of rye (approximately 3 wk prior to corn planting) or the early flowering stage of hairy vetch (several days prior to corn planting) for all three cover crop treatments. Three cover crop residue management treatments were implemented several days after each chemical desiccation: no further treatment (control), cover crop residue mowed (mow), or cover crop residue mowed and disked (mow + disk). All cover crops increased in biomass accumulation, but only hairy vetch increased in N content between desiccation times. Cover crop N availability was more important for corn yield potential than cover crop soil moisture conservation. Corn yields were higher following hairy vetch than following rye and rye + hairy vetch, due to greater N availability from hairy vetch residue. Corn N concentrations and yields were not influenced by desiccation time following hairy vetch, indicating that hairy vetch should be allowed to grow until immediately prior to corn planting, to permit maximum N accumulation. However, corn N concentrations and yields were higher with early desiccation than late desiccation following rye and rye + hairy vetch, indicating that cover crops including rye should be desiccated several weeks before corn planting. Mowing may be an alternative cover crop management technique that enhances the synchrony of cover crop N release with corn N need and uptake while maintaining a moisture conserving mulch.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Tetanus toxin is initially synthesized in the form of a single polypeptide chain and then proteolytically “nicked” by the bacteria to produce a two-chain structure joined by a disulfide bond. This two-chain form of the toxin is the form known to be biologically active. Whether such nicking is necessary for activity, as it is for certain other bacterial toxins, has not been demonstrated previously. Single-chain toxin preparations produced by salt extraction from the bacteria are characterized and compared with pure two-chain toxin obtained from extracellular filtrates. The ability of these various toxin preparations to produce paroxysmal activity in mouse spinal cord neurons grown in dissociated cell culture is described. The pure two-chain toxin is demonstrated to have greater activity than the single-chain toxin preparations. Indeed the activity of the single-chain toxin preparations can be explained by the small amounts of residual two-chain toxin present in these extracts. Using a protease from a toxin-minus strain of Clostridium tetani to convert a single-chain toxin preparation to two-chain toxin increases toxin activity. In vivo the single-chain toxin preparation is also less toxic. These findings indicate that proteolytic nicking of tetanus toxin increases activity. The unnicked, single-chain form of tetanus toxin may be a relatively nontoxic protoxin form of the toxin; this is a structure-function relationship similar to that of other bacterial protein toxins.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The clinical course of tetanus is notable, in addition to its often dramatic clinical presentation, by the long duration of the neuromuscular symptoms. Survivors may have tetanic manifestations for several weeks after the onset of the disease. In this article we correlate the duration of specific electrophysiologic effects produced by tetanus toxin with the degradation of cell-associated toxin in primary cultures of mouse spinal cord neurons. From these studies we can conclude that the toxin has a half-life of 5–6 days. Both the heavy and the light chains of tetanus toxin degrade at similar rates. Labeled toxin, visualized by radioautography, is associated with neuronal cell bodies and neurites, and its distribution is not altered during a 1-week period following toxin exposure. Blockade of synaptic activity persists for weeks at the concentration of radiolabeled toxin used in these studies. This blockade of transmission is reversed as the toxin is degraded, suggesting that degradation of toxin may be a sufficient mechanism for recovery from tetanus.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. We propose a new measure of synchronization of multichannel ictal and interictal EEG signals. The measure is based on the residual covariance matrix of a multichannel autoregressive model. A major advantage of this measure is its ability to be interpreted both in the framework of stochastic and deterministic models. A preliminary analysis of EEG data from three patients using this measure documents the expected increased synchronization during ictal periods but also reveals that increased synchrony persists for prolonged periods (up to 2 h or more) in the postictal period.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 430 (2004), S. 242-249 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases ...
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