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  • 1
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Liquorpulsationen werden bei 4 Patienten mit okkultem Hydrozephalus registriert, bei denen der 3. Ventrikel durch eine Ektasie der A. basilaris komprimiert war. Sechs andere Patienten mit Hydrozephalus, ohne Ektasie der Hirngefäße, dienten als Kontrollserie. Es wurden simultane intraventrikuläre und lumbale Druckmessungen durchgeführt. Während Respirator-Beatmung wurden zwei Veränderungen des Liquordruckes beobachtet, atemsynchrone Druckschwankungen und kleinere pulssynchrone Druckschwankungen. Die letzteren hatten das Aussehen einer arteriellen Pulsdruckkurve. Die intraventrikulären pulssynchronen Druckwellen waren in der Gruppe der Patienten mit Ektasie der A. basilaris fast signifikant höher (P〈0,05). Die Relation zwischen der ventrikulären und der lumbalen Pulswellenhöhe war in dieser Gruppe signifikant größer (P〈0,01). Die Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, daß die Pulsationen von ektatischen Hirngefäßen, die dem Ventrikelsystem nahegelegen sind, ursächlich zur Entstehung des okkulten „Normaldruck“-Hydrozephalus beitragen können.
    Abstract: Résumé Les pulsations du liquide cérébro-spinal (=L.C.R.) ont été enregistrées chez 4 patients atteints d'hydrocéphalie occulte, et dont le troisième ventricule était comprimé par une artère basilaire ectasique. On a utilisé comme témoins 6 patients atteints d'hydrocéphalie sans ectasie des artères cérébrales. On a enregistré simultanément la pression intraventriculaire et la pression lombaire. Les variations de la pression du L.C.R. observées pendant la respiration avec masque furent de deux sortes: à savoir celles qui étaient synchrones de la respiration, et les petites variations synchrones avec le pouls, ces dernièrés ayant la forme d'une courbe de pulsation de pression artérielle. L'amplitude de la pression synchrone pouls-intraventriculaire était presque sensiblement plus grande dans le groupe avec ectasie de l'artère basilaire (P〈0,05). Le rapport de l'amplitude des pulsations ventriculaires et des pulsations lombaires était sensiblement plus grand dans ce groupe (P〈0,01). Ces résultats montrent que les pulsations provenant de vaisseaux ectasiques adjacents au système ventriculaire contribuent peut-être à l'apparition d'une hydrocéphalie occulte à «pression normale».
    Notes: Summary The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsations were recorded in 4 patients with occult hydrocephalus, in whom the third ventricle was compressed by an ectatic basilar artery. Six patients with hydrocephalus without ectasia of the cerebral arteries were used as controls. Simultaneous intraventricular and lumbar pressure recordings were made. The variations in CSF pressure observed during respirator-breathing were of two kinds, i.e., those synchronous with respiration, and those small variations synchronous with the pulse, the latter having the shape of an arterial pressure pulse curve. The intraventricular pulse-synchronous pressure amplitude was almost significantly greater in the group with ectasia of the basilar artery (P〈0.05). The ratio of the ventricular to the lumbar pulse amplitude was significantly greater in this group (P〈0.01). The results suggest that pulsations from ectatic vessels adjacent to the ventricular system may contribute to the occurrence of occult “normal pressure” hydrocephalus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two patients with aneurysms at the termination of the basilar artery deforming the third ventricle had a clinico-radiological picture of communicating hydrocephalus. Both patients underwent ventriculo-atrial shunt operations. Case 1 died 3 months after the operation. Autopsy revealed atrophic changes of the mammillary bodies and basal ganglia. In Case 2 paroxysmal increases of CSF-pressure (plateau-waves) were recorded during the operation. Slight clinical improvement was observed as compared with the preoperative condition. The significance of these findings are discussed in relation to the syndrome of adult “normal pressure” hydrocephalus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme ; human ; interferon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This report presents the results of a phase I trial of the value of human leucocyte inferon-alpha in the treatment of glioblastoma. Twelve patients entered the trial. In one case we believe that the patient benefitted from the interferon treatment. CT scans of patients on interferon did not reveal the true extent of the tumorous tissue.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of nuclear medicine 15 (1989), S. 687-689 
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Regions of interest ; ROI's ; Brain atlas ; Computerized atlas ; Adjustable atlas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A computerized brain atlas, adjustable to the patients anatomy, has been developed. It is primarily intended for use in positron emission tomography, but may also be employed in other fields utilizing neuro imaging, such as stereotactic surgery, transmission computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The atlas is based on anatomical information obtained from a digitized cryosectioned brain. It can be adjusted to fit a wide range of images from individual brains with normal anatomy. The corresponding transformation is chosen so that the modified atlas agrees with a set of CT or NMR images of the patient. The computerized atlas can be used to improve the quantification and evaluation of PET data by: - Aiding and improving the selection of regions of interests. - Facilitating comparisons of functional image data from different individuals or groups of individuals. - Facilitating the comparison of different examinations of the same patient, thus reducing the need of reproducible fixation systems. - Providing external a priori anatomical information to be used in the image reconstruction. - Improving the attenuation and scatter corrections. - Aiding in selecting a suitable patient orientation during the PET study. By applying the inverse atlas transformation to PET data set it is possible to relate the PET information to the anatomy of the reference atlas. Thus reformatted PET data from different patients can be averaged, and averages from different categories of patients can be compared. This procedure will facilitate the identification of statistically significant differences in the PET information from different groups of patients.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Bilateral intracavernous aneurysms ; dynamic CAT ; ophthalmoplegia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three cases of bilateral aneurysms of the juxtasellar segment of the internal carotid artery concomitant with intrasellar cisternal herniation are presented. Two of the three cases were clinically and neuroradiologically misinterpreted as parasellar tumour when conventional CAT was used. The true diagnosis was established on angiography. By using a dynamic CAT technique the aneurysms would have been distinguished from tumours.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 54 (1980), S. 157-165 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A simple approach to stereotaxic radiography, including a new method for determination of target coordinates, is described. The proposed technique may be used in combination with conventional equipment for roentgen eximinations available in X-ray departments and operating rooms; the only additional outfit needed is a coordinate frame that can be attached to the patient's head. Determination of the coordinates is easily made graphically, or from a simple equation using a pocket calculator or a mini-computer.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    Keywords: Positron emission tomography ; anxiety ; defense reaction ; fear ; simple phobia
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Positron emission tomography ; Schizophrenia Glucose metabolism ; Chlorpromazine ; Sulpiride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to determine regional brain glucose metabolism in schizophrenic patients (n=17) before and during neuroleptic treatment. The patients had not been treated with neuroleptics for at least 3 weeks before the first study. All suffered from acute psychotic symptoms and were hospitalized to obtain neuroleptic treatment. After determination of regional brain metabolism without neuroleptic treatment, 11 patients were treated with sulpiride (800 mg/day) and 6 patients were treated with chlorpromazine (400 mg/day) over 5–6 weeks before the second PET investigation. The control group consisted of seven healthy male volunteers, also investigated twice 5 weeks apart. The PET investigation was made with the subject in a resting state. The tracer was uniformly labelled 11C-glucose. The metabolism was determined bilaterally in 15 brain regions cortical, as well as central regions. Metabolic rates differed among the groups. The sulpiride group had lower metabolic rates than the controls and the schizophrenic patients later treated with chlorpromazine. The sulpiride group, in which absolute metabolic rates were determined, were clinically more autistic and chronic than the chlorpromazine group. It was proposed that these facts could explain the lower metabolic rates in the sulpiride group. A significant change in metabolism in relation to drug treatment was only found in one brain region. The selective D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride increased the metabolic rate in the right lentiform nucleus in comparison with the patients treated with chlorpromazine and the controls. Likewise, relative metabolic rates were increased only in the right lentiform nucleus. Negative correlations between intensity of clinical symptoms and metabolism indicated that emotional tone and drive were related to brain metabolism. No correlations were found between drug concentrations and metabolism or clinical symptoms.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Intravenous angiography ; Computerized axial tomography ; Limitations contrast enhancement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using a polystyrene phantom and various concentrations of iodine contrast material, the discrimination of blood vessels by the EMI scanner was studied. Although a 2 mm tube can be delineated using high concentrations of iodine, smaller tubes are not seen due to noise inherent in the system.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A ring detector positron camera system for CT of the brain is described. The system uses 95 NaI (Tl) detectors, arranged with cylindrical geometry, for the simultaneous detection of coincidences from 1900 detector combinations. With a new sampling technique an experimental system resolution of 7 mm FWHM has been obtained. The sensitivity was found to be 5300 c/s with a 100-keV energy threshold and using a 19.2-cm-diameter cylindrical phantom with a homogeneous specific activity of 1 μCi/cm3. A clinical study of blood-brain barrier damage using 68Ga-EDTA is reported.
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