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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Surfactant-associated protein ; A-Surfactant composition ; Anthracite dust ; Bituminous dust ; Quartz dust
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were carried out to determine the long-term effect of instillation of 500 mg of generic bituminous, anthracite, quartz, or titanium dioxide (TiO2) dust on the composition of pulmonary surfactant. Dust was instilled in the caudal lobe of the right lungs of female pigtailed macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). The composition of surfactant isolated from cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (CF-BAL) samples obtained from right lungs (dust exposed) at various times over the following year was compared with that of surfactant isolated from CF-BAL from left lungs (dust free). Little change was seen in the amount of surfactant-associated lipid phosphorus as a result of exposure to dust. Exposure to quartz, anthracite, or TiO2 dust induced a significant increase in the total amount of protein in the surfactant-enriched fraction. The relative amount of specific proteins was also altered: surfactant-associated protein A decreased, and the amount of the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin molecules (identified by NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis) increased. These changes were visible more than a year after instillation of quartz and at least 3 months after instillation of anthracite dust. Despite variation in the responses of the individual animals, the changes observed might serve as an indicator of the severity of the effect of exposure of the lung to mineral dust and/or to pathogens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Pneumoconiosis ; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase ; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ; Disease models ; Animal macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract N-acetyl-beta(β)-D-glucosaminidase is a lysosomal enzyme secreted by alveolar macrophages in response to phagocytosis of particulate material. Alveolar macrophages participate in the degradation and fibrosis of pulmonary tissue that results in pneumoconiosis. Known quantities of four characterized respirable dusts were bronchoscopically placed into the right caudal lung lobe of macaque monkeys. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from dust-exposed right lung and unexposed left lung of the same individuals at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks after dust instillation. The samples were tested for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity to determine if the enzyme levels could serve as an indicator of pulmonary injury induced by generic coal dusts when compared to known fibrogenic and nuisance dusts. Installation of generic quartz, anthracite, or TiO2 dusts produced significant elevations of enzyme activity and increased numbers of macrophages in the dust-exposed lobes. Elevations in enzymatic activity and macrophage numbers were greatest in response to generic quartz dust. These results suggest that quantitative levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity may be a useful indicator of acute and chronic lung injury following exposure to fibrogenic and nonfibrogenic dusts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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