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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Oncology ; Toxicology ; Biomedicine ; Cancer Research ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781441960825
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Scanning electron microscopy ; Cirrhosis ; Liver ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The surface features of single cells and of multicellular tissue units in cirrhotic rat livers have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cirrhosis of the liver was produced in rats by simultaneously treating them with carbon tetrachloride and sodium phenobarbital. Connective tissue septa consisted of a loose mesh-work of fibers in which fibroblasts were embedded. The arrangement and surface features of hepatocytes in cirrhotic nodules differed from those found in parenchyma of normal livers. Hepatocytes in cirrhotic nodules universally formed plates two cells thick. The portion of the hepatocyte surface covered by microvilli was greatly increased in cells from cirrhotic livers, and this was reflected in a corresponding reduction in the area occupied by the smooth-surfaced narrow intercellular space. Canaliculi between hepatocytes in cirrhotic livers were reduplicated and frequently branched. Hepatocyte surfaces covered by microplicae and flattened microvilli, typical of connective tissue-facing surfaces in normal livers, were greatly increased in cirrhotic livers corresponding to the increase in connective tissue. Where hepatocytes directly contacted fibroblasts (and not fibers), their surfaces were entirely smooth. Sinusoidal endothelial cells in cirrhotic livers contained only isolated, relatively sparse pores, and they lacked both sieve plates (pore complexes) and large fenestrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Liver ; Goldfish ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A re-examination of goldfish liver was made through the use of SEM of fractured samples and TEM of ultrathin-sections and freeze-etch replicas. Several new hepatic fine structures described in the present study are morphologically similar to those reported previously in many higher vertebrates including mammals. Hepatic sinusoids of goldfish contain fenestrations which are arranged into sieve plates. Although the hepatic plates are made up of two layers of hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of goldfish liver are morphologically similar to mammalian hepatocytes, particularly with respect to the sinusoidal surfaces which are studded with numerous microvilli. The intercellular surfaces of hepatocytes have both nexus and desmosomal junctions, similar to those found in various epithelial cells of higher vertebrates, as cell attachments and communication foci. Tight junctions are found mainly between the openings of the intracellular bile canaliculi and the intralobular bile ductules which are situated in the center of the bicellular hepatic plate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Liver ; Fish ; Disse space ; Perisinusoidal cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A new type of perisinusoidal cell containing numerous microfilaments is described for the first time. It is found in abundance in the livers of both marine and freshwater fish. These perisinusoidal cells are situated within the space of Disse and adhere firmly through desmosomes both to sinusoidal endothelial cells and to hepatocytes. The cytoplasmic microfilaments are striking and make these cells readily distinguishable from the perisinusoidal fat-storing cells of Ito. Although the function of these cells is not known, the observations presented here suggest that they may provide a supportive framework within the liver.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In cultured normal rat liver epithelial cells, the specific activity and/or isozyme expression of NADH-diaphorase (NADH-D), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were markedly dependent on the growth state of the cultures. Proliferating, preconfluent cells had higher specific activities of PK, NADH-D, and G6PD but lower activities of GGT and AP than did the more stationary confluent cells. Addition of epidermal growth factor [EGF] to the media of proliferating cells enhanced the specific activities of PK, NADH-D, G6PD, GGT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of these cells, but the specific activity of AP was markedly depressed. The increase in activity of PK and GGT by EGF appeared to involve new protein synthesis, whereas the effect of EGF on AP appeared to involve the EGF-directed suppression of the synthesis of a form of AP that is produced exclusively by cells in confluent cultures. Furthermore, the preconfluent cells were more responsive to the action of EGF on AP than were confluent cells, i.e., the EGF-mediated decrease in AP activity was seen at lower concentration in preconfluent than in confluent cells. Paradoxically, confluent cells exhibited a two-to threefold higher capacity to bind [125I]EGF because of an increase in surface receptor number. The results of this study indicate that enzymatic or other biochemical studies performed on cultured cells must take into account the growth-state of the cultures. EGF can modulate enzyme activity in growing and nongrowing cells; one effect of EGF is to maintain higher activity of glycolytic enzymes, suggesting that EGF or EGF-like factors may contribute to the high rate of glycolysis in certain neoplasms.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sodium butyrate acts as a differentiation-promoting agent for a wide variety of cell types, including some tumor cell lines. In this study, we examined the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on the functional differentiation of cultured WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stemlike cells. Treatment of WB-F344 cells with 3.75 mM SB resulted in an inhibition of cellular proliferation, alterations to normal cellular morphology (increased cell size and decreased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio), and significant increases in cellular protein synthesis. The SB-mediated changes in cell morphology, proliferative status, and protein catabolism were accompanied by development of dexamethasone-inducible tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) enzyme activity. Culture of WB-F344 cells in growth medium containing SB and dexamethasone (DEX; 1 × 10-6 M) resulted in greater than sevenfold increase in the basal TAT activity compared with control cultures. An additional sixfold increase in TAT activity was observed when cells cultured in medium containing SB and DEX were exposed to 1 × 10-7 M DEX during the last 24 hours of culture. The DEX-inducible TAT activity developed by SB-treated WB-F344 cells responded to the modulating effects of insulin and L-tyrosine in a manner that closely resembled that reported for cultured hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines. These studies show that treatment of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stemlike cells with the differentiation-promoting agent SB in vitro leads to expression of the differentiation-specific hepatocyte enzyme TAT. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), all trans-retinoic acid (RA), 5-azacytidine (5-AC), and phenobarbital (PB) on the activities of seven enzymes and/or isozymes of a diploid rat liver epithelial cell line have been studied. At 0.1 μg/ml, TPA depressed the specific activities of lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, whereas 2 mM PB depressed gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase. At 0.01 μg/ml, RA markedly depressed the activity of NADH-diaphorase and lactate dehydrogenase but enhanced the activity of alkaline phophatase. Only 2 μM 5-AC caused the most significant shift of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme toward the “muscle”-type isozyme. Histochemical studies revealed that PB and 5-AC induced focal areas of cells with glycogen deposits, but no significant changes in either ultrastructure or alpha-fetoprotein and albumin immunohistochemical staining pattern were observed to suggest hepatocytic differentiation. Although none of the enzymatic changes could be consistently correlated with the effects of these biological modifiers on the cellular growth rate, the effect of RA on NADH-diaphorase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities was the opposite of the changes observed during carcinogenesis of these rat liver epithelial cells by multiple treatments with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The depression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity by PB is contradictory to that observed histochemically in hepatocytes in vivo, but such discrepancy may be related to the differences in cell type, growth conditions, or duration of exposure.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 31 (2002), S. 339-346 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Hepatocarcinogenesis is a slow process during which genomic changes progressively alter the hepatocellular phenotype to produce cellular intermediates that evolve into hepatocellular carcinoma. During the long preneoplastic stage, in which the liver is often the site of chronic hepatitis, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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