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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin : Springer
    Call number: 09-NW:53(3)
    Keywords: Food Analysis
    Pages: xl, 862 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3., überarb. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3-540-16962-8
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    09-NW:53(3) departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Food Chemistry 43 (1992), S. 337-343 
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Food Chemistry 39 (1991), S. 59-72 
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Boiled beef ; Aroma ; Screening ; Potent odorants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  After boiling, beef was extracted with dichloromethane, and the volatile fraction including the solvent was distilled from the non-volatile material. The distillate was divided into two portions; one-half was subjected to aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and the other to aroma extract concentration analysis (AECA). In the latter case, the AECA was accompanied by a series of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) analyses, whereas in the former (i.e. AEDA) the extract was first concentrated to a small volume and then diluted stepwise for GCO analysis. Both screening procedures confirmed the presence of 32 odorants which were all identified after a 250-fold concentration of the extracts. However, the ranking of the compounds in order of odour potency was different due to losses of the odorants in AEDA. 2-Furfurylthiol and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone followed by 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and a group containing 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 1-octen-3-one and (E)-2-non-enal were indicated by AECA to be the most potent odorants of boiled beef.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Quantitative headspace analysis ; Baguette ; Isotope dilution assay ; Stale flavour ; Odour-profile analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  An apparatus, based on the principle of dynamic headspace analysis, has been developed for the analysis of potent odorants released from two types of baguette (“intensifiée”, INT and “artisanal”, ART) which differ in their odour profiles. The odour profiles of model mixtures containing the odorants at concentrations found in bread were evaluated by headspace analysis using the apparatus as an olfactometer and were compared to the odour profiles of the baguettes. The results indicated that losses of methylpropanal, 2- and 3-methylbutanal and an increase of hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal led to a stale flavour. Because the concentrations of methylpropanal and (E)-2-nonenal were higher in the ART crust than in the INT crust, the change from a pleasant baguette odour to a stale odour was slower in ART baguettes. We suggest that the apparatus designed for quantitative headspace analysis could also be suitable for determination of the release of flavour compounds from other foods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Omission tests ; Quantitative analysis ; Sensory analysis ; Stewed beef juice ; Taste compound
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  On the basis of chemical analysis, taste activity values (ratio of concentration to taste threshold) and omission tests, the following substances and ions were identified as taste components of the juice formed during stewing of beef: 5′-inosine monophosphate, 5′-adenosine monophosphate, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, carnosine, creatinine, creatine, hypoxanthine, alanine, cysteine, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride and phosphate. The taste profile of an aqueous solution containing these components in the concentrations found in stewed beef juice in addition to gelatin was close to that of the original.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Spinach ; Processing ; Hay off-flavour ; Fishy off-flavour ; Isotope dilution assay ; Furanoid fatty acids ; Storage ; Headspace analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Gas chromatography-olfactometry of headspace samples revealed that (Z)-3-hexenal, methanethiol, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, dimethyl trisulphide, octanal, 2-isopropyl- and 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine are potent odorants of raw spinach. Boiling the spinach led to a change, such that dimethyl sulphide, methanethiol, dimethyl trisulphide, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline became the most important odorants. A further change was observed after drying and storage of raw spinach: methylpropanal, 2- and 3-methylbutanal and propanal were identified as the odorants with higher odour activity values. It was also found that (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and methional, in a concentration ratio of about 1 : 100, are responsible for the fishy off-flavour as dry spinach stored at lower temperatures under nitrogen. The hay-like flavour was caused by oxidative degradation of furan fatty acids, yielding 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Boiled chicken ; Warmed-over flavour ; (WOF) ; Odorants ; Sensory evaluation ; Dilution experiments ; Autoxidation ; Storage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  The most potent odorants of freshly boiled chicken and boiled, refrigerated and reheated chicken showing warmed-over flavour (WOF) were screened by dilution experiments. In total, 20 odorants were selected for quantification by stable isotope dilution assays. Calculation of odour activity values (ratio of concentration to odour threshold) indicated methanethiol, (E,E)- and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nondienal, 2-furfurylthiol, hexanal, octanal and acetaldehyde as the character impact odorants of freshly boiled chicken. Refrigerated storage and reheating of boiled chicken led to a loss of meaty, chicken-like and sweet odour notes and to the formation of green, cardboard-like, metallic off-odours. These changes were mainly caused by a sevenfold increase of hexanal and a sixfold decrease of both (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2-furfurylthiol. Sensory experiments confirmed this conclusion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Parsley ; Hay-like off-flavour ; Headspace analysis ; Isotope dilution assay ; p-Mentha-1 ; 3 ; 8-triene ; (Z)-6-Decenal ; 3-Methyl-2 ; 4-nonanedione ; Furanoid fatty acid ; Water activity ; Drying
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  The flavour of parsley was found to change during drying and storage. Quantification of 27 potent odorants, selected by dilution experiments and calculation of odour activity values, indicated that 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione was mainly responsible for the hay-like off-flavour. Two furanoid fatty acids, known to be precursors of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, were detected in dry parsley. The decrease in the intensities of the parsley-like, metallic and green notes in the odour profile during storage of dry parsley was due to losses of p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, myrcene and (Z)-6-decenal. Sulphurous cabbage-like and malty notes were caused by dimethyl sulphide, methylpropanal as well as 2- and 3-methylbutanal. The effect of the water activity (at a w levels of 0.15, 0.25, 0.35) on the changes in the concentrations of all these compounds during storage of dry parsley was investigated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Pyrazine ; Odour threshold ; Structure ; Molecular modelling ; Theoretical receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  The odour thresholds (i.e. the lowest concentration at which an odour can be detected) of 80 alkylpyrazines, most of them synthesized, were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Trimethylpyrazine (1) had the lowest threshold (50 ng/l air) amongst mono-, di-, tri- and tetramethylpyrazine. Substitution of the methyl group in position 2 of 1 by an ethyl group yielded 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (2) showing a 4500-fold lower odour threshold than 1. The thresholds of 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (3), 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (4) and 2-ethenyl-3-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine (5) were as low as that of 2. The threshold of 3-ethenyl-2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine was 8000 times higher than that of 5, indicating that an ethenyl group was only tolerated in position 2, but not in position 3. A further increase in the odour threshold was found when the ethenyl or the ethyl group was located in position 5. Substitution of the ethyl group of 2 by a (Z)-1-propenyl group increased the threshold only by a factor of 5, whereas the (E)-isomer and the 2-propenyl group enhanced the threshold by factors of 160 and 27000, respectively. Also a propyl, butyl, pentyl, isobutyl or hexyl group in position 2 of 2 was too bulky, and in these molecules the odour threshold was at least 2200 times higher than that of 2. The geometrical structure of a theoretical receptor was obtained by superimposing the minimized structures of pyrazines with low thresholds (Chem-X force-field minimization). Sterically forbidden regions in the resulting model were found by superimposing pyrazines with high thresholds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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