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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Gemeinsame Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA) und des Arbeitskreises zur Weiterentwicklung der Lehre in der Zahnmedizin (AKWLZ); 20150930-20151003; Leipzig; DOCP11-149 /20150831/
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  14. Deutscher Kongress für Versorgungsforschung; 20151007-20151009; Berlin; DOCP150 /20150922/
    Publication Date: 2015-09-23
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0300-9629
    Keywords: 5-HT ; Pineal ; chicken-5-HT ; diurnal rhythm ; serotonin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies have indicated that when Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., are exposed to Neoparamoeba sp. the fish produce anti-Neoparamoeba sp. antibodies. It appears unlikely that these antibodies elicit any specific protection against amoebic gill disease (AGD) as fish with demonstrable activities have been affected by AGD. Experiments were conducted on Atlantic salmon cultured throughout Tasmania to assess the natural production of antibodies towards Neoparamoeba sp. Fish were sampled from areas where AGD was prevalent and from areas where there had been no reported cases. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure anti-Neoparamoeba sp. antibody activities in serum. All fish from sea water had antibody activities greater than the negative control fish, including fish from areas with no reported cases of AGD. Time trial samples indicated that time after transfer to sea water did not appear to be a significant (P 〉 0.05) factor in antibody activity, however location was (P 〈 0.05). There was no agreement (corrected κ value, 0.16) between the ELISA result and the isolation of Neoparamoeba sp. from the gills of the same fish. The results suggest that Atlantic salmon in seawater culture in Tasmania produce anti-Neoparamoeba sp. antibodies regardless of infection history, suggesting the presence of Neoparamoeba sp. in the environment.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Neoparamoeba sp. infection on the innate immune responses of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were experimentally infected with Neoparamoeba sp. and serially sampled 0, 1, 4, 6, 8 and 11 days post-exposure (dpe). Histological analysis of infected fish gill arches identified the presence of characteristic amoebic gill disease lesions as early as 1 dpe with a steady increase in the number of affected gill filaments over time. Immune parameters investigated were anterior kidney phagocyte function (respiratory burst, chemotaxis and phagocytosis) and total plasma protein and lysozyme. In comparison with non-exposed control fish basal respiratory burst responses were suppressed at 8 and 11 dpe, while phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated activity was significantly suppressed at 11 dpe. Variable differences in phagocytic activity and phagocytic rate following infection were identified. There was an increase in the chemotactic response of anterior kidney macrophages isolated from exposed fish relative to control fish at 8 dpe. Total protein and lysozyme levels were not affected by Neoparamoeba sp. exposure.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies have indicated that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., affected by amoebic gill disease (AGD) are resistant to re-infection. These observations were based upon a comparison of gross gill lesion abundance between previously infected and naïve control fish. Anecdotal evidence from Atlantic salmon farms in southern Tasmania suggests that previous infection does not protect against AGD as indicated by a lack of temporal change in freshwater bathing intervals. Experiments were conducted to determine if previous infection of Atlantic salmon with Neoparamoeba sp. would provide protection against challenge and elucidate the immunological basis of any protection. Atlantic salmon were infected with Neoparamoeba sp. for 12 days then treated with a 4-h freshwater bath. Fish were separated into two groups and maintained in either sea water or fresh water for 6 weeks. Fish were then transferred to one tank with a naïve control group and challenged with Neoparamoeba sp. Fish kept in sea water had lower mortality rates compared with first time exposed and freshwater maintained fish, however, these data are believed to be biased by ongoing mortalities during the seawater maintenance phase. Phagocyte function decreased over exposure time and freshwater maintained fish demonstrated an increased ability to mount a specific immune response. These results suggest that under the challenge conditions herein described, antigen exposure via infection does not induce protection to subsequent AGD.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 25.70.Np ; 23.20.En ; 21.60.-n
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the fragmentation of 500 MeV/u46Ti the spin alignment of43mSc (I=19/2−, T1/2=473 ns) fragments was observed by the Time Dependent Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) method. The measurement was performed for different cuts in the longitudinal momentum distribution. A positive spin alignment of about 35% was observed in the center and a negative alignment of about 15% in the wing of the distribution. For the different cuts the relative production of the 19/2− state was measured. In the wing of the distribution the isomeric ratio N(19/2−)/total43Sc is about 15 times larger than in the center. The results of this pilot experiment are discussed in the frame of a shell-model.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Seasonal changes of some water relations parameters of Norway spruce shoots (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) were studied during two experiments using the pressure-volume analysis. For each experiment only shoots of a single tree were used.During the first study, the course of the turgor loss point (as bulk osmotic pressure when turgor first reaches zero, πp) of shoots developed in late 1986 vegetation period, were measured in 1987. The turgor loss point decreased temporarily from –2.5 MPa at the beginning of the year to –3.3 MPa at the end of March, but then increased to the original level for the rest of the year.During the second study, water relations parameters were measured in late summer 1987 and in late winter 1988. Winter shoots at full water saturation contained up to 20% less water than in late summer. Accordingly, the bulk osmotic pressure at full water saturation (πp) decreased from –1.7 MPa in late summer to –1.9 MPa in winter, πp decreased also from –2.2 MPa to –2.8 MPa. However, the amount of osmotically active substances (mOsmol, N) remained unchanged. The relative amount of apoplastic water in the total shoot water content appeared to drop insignificantly from 17% to 15%.The results show that the decrease in πo and πp in late winter is not due to an accumulation of osmotically active substances in the vacuoles but is due to a decrease in tissue water content. The temporary reduction of the symplastic volume by deposition of osmotically inert substances seems to be the most probable cause of this phenomenon.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Using the pressure volume analysis (PV analysis) on the shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and the here presented capillary microcryoscopy of the needle press sap of the same shoots, it was possible to determine the amount of apoplastic water in the needles (Wan) as well as in the defoliated shoots (Was). Additionally, the bulk osmotic pressure at full water saturation in the symplast of the needles and defoliated shoots (πon and πos) was determined. The dependence of the bulk-averaged turgor pressure (Pt) on the water content and the relationship between the bulk modulus of elasticity of the needles (ɛn) and the bulk-averaged needle turgor pressure (Ptn) was shown with help of the PV analysis on the whole shoots and defoliated shoots. The study was conducted at the end of the vegetation period in 1987 and during winter 1988.The proportion of Wan in the total needle water content (Wtn) was 14% in September 1987 and 12.5% in March 1988. The respective percentage of Was in Wts were 27% and 25%. The amount of apoplastic water depended on the ratio of the dry weight of defoliated shoots to the dry weight of the whole shoots. A standard mean value for the amount of Wan in the total water content of the shoots (Wt) was therefore not possible. The bulk osmotic pressure at full water saturation in the needle symplasts was –1.9 MPa in September 1987 and –2.2 MPa in winter 1988. The respective values of the bulk osmotic pressures in the symplast of the defoliated shoots (πos) were –1.5 MPa and –1.7 MPa. Thus πon was 0.1 MPa lower and πos 0.3–0.4 MPa higher than the average osmotic pressure during full water saturation in the symplast of the whole shoots (πo).The relation between bulk-averaged turgor pressure and water content showed that during water loss Ptn dropped more rapidly than the turgor pressure of defoliated shoots (Pts). Consequently the needles were less elastic than the defoliated shoots. The turgor values of whole shoots followed an intemediate course between Ptn and Pts. The flat course of Pts seems to be the main reason for the often observed “plateau” of ψ-isotherms of whole shoots near full turgor.
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