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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Key words Renal cell carcinoma ; N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase ; γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase ; Glycan ; ConA affinity chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The activities of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT) III, IV and V were determined in 10 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and compared with the normal kidney cortex (NKC) regions of the same kidney resected from RCC patients. It was found that the GnT III and GnT IV activities decreased consistently in all samples of RCC, while GnT V activity increased, decreased or did not change in different samples. The mean levels of GnT III and GnT IV activities in RCC were found to be very significantly lower than those of NKC on statistical analysis, but the mean value of GnT V activity was almost identical in RCC and NKC. The decrease in GnT activities in RCC were compatible with the decrease in bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and antennary number of complex-type N-glycans in γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) partially purified from RCCs as studied with concanavalin A (ConA) affinity column chromatography, which showed a decrease of unbound fraction and increase of bound fractions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words Atopic dermatitis ; Major basic protein ; Acute lesion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Deposition of eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) often occurs in acute and chronic lesions of atopic dermatitis, but it is not clear what the factors may be that are related to the MBP deposition in some skin lesions of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a personal or family history of respiratory atopy is related to the intensity of MBP deposition in acute lesions. We immunohistochemically stained biopsy specimens from acute, non-oozing indurated erythematous lesions of atopic dermatitis with BMK-13, a monoclonal antibody which recognizes MBP. The subjects were 40 adult patients with atopic dermatitis. Of the 40 patients, 22 had a personal history of respiratory atopy, 8 had a family history of respiratory atopy, and 10 had neither a personal nor a family history of respiratory atopy. Deposition of MBP was observed in the specimens from 24 (60%) of the 40 patients examined. Furthermore, there were great individual differences in the intensity of MBP deposition. A strong MBP deposition was often seen in specimens from patients with atopic dermatitis who had a personal or family history of respiratory atopy, but was absent in specimens from those patients with atopic dermatitis who had neither a personal nor a family history of respiratory atopy. We conclude that a strong MBP deposition seems to occur in acute lesions of those patients with atopic dermatitis who have a predisposition to respiratory atopy.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Subcutaneous fat necrosis leading to hypercalcemia is rare but well documented in asphyxiated neonates. This paper presents two such neonates in whom sonography revealed the development of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The kidneys had initially been shown to be normal sonographically. In one infant, nephrocalcinosis developed as increasing echogenicity of the medullary pyramids. In the other, increased echogenicity of the renal cortex of uncertain cause developed together with nephrolithiasis. These sonographic appearances have not been described previously in this entity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have identified a minor hemoglobin component (∼5%) in the blood of a healthy Costa Rican female, but not in her mother and two brothers (father not studied), that has an His→Arg replacement at position β77 (Hb Costa Rica). No other amino acid replacements were observed and no β- or γ-chain-like peptides were present. Hb Costa Rica has a normal stability. Sequence analyses of numerous polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified segments of DNA that contain exon 2 of the β gene failed to identify a CAC→CGC (His→Arg) mutation. The same was the case when cDNA was sequenced, indicating that a β-Costa Rica-mRNA could not be detected with this procedure. Gene mapping of genomic DNA with BglII, BamHI, and HindIII gave normal fragments only and with the same intensity as observed for the fragments of a normal control. The quantities of the β chain variants Hb J-Iran and Hb Fukuyama with related mutations at β77 vary between 30% and 45% in heterozygotes, whereas that of Hb F-Kennestone with the same His→Arg mutation but in the Gγ-globin gene, is a high 40%–45% (as percentage of total Gγ) in a heterozygous newborn. These different observations exclude a heterozygosity of the A→G mutation at codon β77, as well as a deletion comparable to that of Hbs Lepore or Kenya, or a β-globin gene duplication, and point to a nontraditional inheritance of Hb Costa Rica. Allele-specific amplification of cDNA with appropriate primers identified the presence of a low level of mutated mRNA in the reticulocytes of the patient, which was confirmed by dotblot analysis of the same material with 32P-labeled probes. Comparable amplification products were not observed in genomic DNA. The A→G mutation apparently occurred in a somatic cell at a relatively early stage in the development of the hematopoietic cell system, and Hb Costa Rica accumulated through rapid cell divisions in patchy areas in the bone marrow (somatic mosaicism). An unequal distribution of Hb Costa Rica over the red cells supports this possibility.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hb Lepore is one of the most common abnormal haemoglobins in Caucasians in Central Portugal and in the Spanish Alta Extremadura (0.28% in a survey of school children). A group of 19 Portuguese and 14 Spanish Hb Lepore carriers (all unrelated) was characterised at the molecular level by the polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. The Portuguese and one Spanish carrier were heterozygous for Hb Lepore-Baltimore, whereas all other Spanish subjects were Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston carriers. Sequencing of the Hb Lepore-Baltimore gene further established the crossover at δ68-β84, a region two codons (CDs) shorter than that previously described and easily confirmed by digestion with MaeI and BanI. Data from haplotype analysis suggest that this crossover occurred as an independent event on the lberian Peninsula. The haematological data were similar in both groups except for the levels of Hb F and the Gγ chain, which were significantly higher in the Hb Lepore-Baltimore heterozygotes. Quantification of the globin chains and the mRNA transcripts showed that the δβ gene is transcribed at a higher level than the δ gene with levels of translation giving rise to 10%–15% of Hb Lepore. The different levels of Hb F observed in the two groups are the results of the higher transcription rate of the γ genes in Hb Lepore-Baltimore heterozygotes and an apparently less efficient translation of Gγ genes in Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston heterozygotes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have identified a minor hemoglobin component (∼5%) in the blood of a healthy Costa Rican female, but not in her mother and two brothers (father not studied), that has an His→Arg replacement at position β77 (Hb Costa Rica). No other amino acid replacements were observed and no β- or γ-chain-like peptides were present. Hb Costa Rica has a normal stability. Sequence analyses of numerous polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified segments of DNA that contain exon 2 of the β gene failed to identify a CAC→WGC (His→Arg) mutation. The same was the case when cDNA was sequenced, indicating that a β-Costa Rica-mRNA could not be detected with this procedure. Gene mapping of genomic DNA withBglII,BamHI, andHindIII gave normal fragments only and with the same intensity as observed for the fragments of a normal control. The quantities of the β chain variants Hb JIran and Hb Fukuyama with related mutations at (β77 vary between 30% and 45% in heterozygotes, whereas that of Hb F-Kennestone with the same His→Arg mutation but in theGyγ-globin gene, is a high 40%–45% (as percentage of totalGγ) in a heterozygous newborn. These different observations exclude a heterozygosity of the A→G mutation at codon β77, as well as a deletion comparable to that of Hbs Lepore or Kenya, or a β-globin gene duplication, and point to a nontraditional inheritance of Hb Costa Rica. Allele-specific amplification of cDNA with appropriate primers identified the presence of a low level of mutated mRNA in the reticulocytes of the patient, which was confirmed by dotblot analysis of the same material with32p-labeled probes. Comparable amplification products were not observed in genomic DNA. The A→G mutation apparently occurred in a somatic cell at a relatively early stage in the development of the hematopoietic cell system, and Hb Costa Rica accumulated through rapid cell divisions in patchy areas in the bone marrow (somatic mosaicism). An unequal distribution of Hb Costa Rica over the red cells supports this possibility.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Our index patient, a 14-year-old male on chemotherapy for acute lymphatic leukemia had extensive opacification of the urinary tract on the preliminary film for an intravenous urogram. Sonography and computed tomography also demonstrated dense material in the calyces, renal pelves and ureters. Since then, we have found another patient, a 9-year-old female with acute lymphatic leukemia who was not receiving chemotherapy, with a similar pattern on sonography and computed tomography. These densities unlike those in our first patient were not visible on a plain film of the abdomen. All of the material disappeared spontaneously in both patients.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. Fluoroscopically guided air reduction of intussusception is a well-accepted technique. There are only two previous reports in which US has been used to monitor pneumatic reduction. Objective. To assess the ability of US to monitor the success of air reduction of intussusception. Materials and methods. Sonographically guided air-enema reduction of intussusception in 199 children. In phase I (11 children), the success or failure of reduction was confirmed by fluoroscopy. In phase II (188 children), complete reduction was confirmed by clinical improvement of the child and repeat sonography 1 h later showing no persistent intussusception. Results. In phase I, fluoroscopy confirmed the accuracy of US in all 11 children. In phase II, the success rate of initial reduction was 95 %. Following successful reduction, US repeated 1 h later showed no recurrence of intussusception in 92 %. In ten (5 %) of 188, initial reduction was unsuccessful; fluoroscopically guided air reduction successfully reduced only three of these ten failures. Conclusions. Air enema guided by US is a practical and reliable technique for the reduction of intussusception.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Haplotypes ; Gγ andAγ promoters ; Locus control region (LCR) ; Hypersensitive site-2 (HS-2)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have determined the haplotypes of 669 βS and 109 βA chromosomes from numerous members of 297 Nigerian families of various ethnic backgrounds. Among the βS chromosomes, haplotype 19 was detected in 93.2%, haplotype 17 in 3.4%, and haplotype 20 in 0.1%, while 2.4% represented atypical haplotypes. As many as 60.6% of the βA chromosomes exhibited haplotype 19 mutations, 8.2% had haplotype 3, and 1.8% had haplotype 20. Two siblings with elevated Hb F andGγ levels were heterozygous for a βS chromosome with haplotype 19 and a second chromosome with a hybrid haplotype (termed 19B). In this hybrid chromosome, haplotype 3-like locus control region (LCR) [hypersensitive site-2 (HS-2)] sequences are in juxtaposition to those of the 5′ flanking region of theGγ promoter of a βS chromosome with haplotype 19. The presence of this hybrid chromosome is associated with highGγ values in individuals with both sickle cell anemia (SS) and sickle cell trait (AS); it closely resembles another hybrid βS chromosome, termed 19 A, observed in a previously reported Turkish SS patient who was homozygous for this chromosome and had high Hb F and highGγ values. In both instances, it is hypothesized that the haplotype 3-like sequences of the LCR HS-2 contain genetic determinants that can combine with factors produced during hematopoietic stress, resulting in increased γ-globin gene expression.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: An element-free Galerkin method which is applicable to arbitrary shapes but requires only nodal data is applied to elasticity and heat conduction problems. In this method, moving least-squares interpolants are used to construct the trial and test functions for the variational principle (weak form); the dependent variable and its gradient are continuous in the entire domain. In contrast to an earlier formulation by Nayroles and coworkers, certain key differences are introduced in the implementation to increase its accuracy. The numerical examples in this paper show that with these modifications, the method does not exhibit any volumetric locking, the rate of convergence can exceed that of finite elements significantly and a high resolution of localized steep gradients can be achieved. The moving least-squares interpolants and the choices of the weight function are also discussed in this paper.
    Additional Material: 26 Ill.
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