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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Anaerobic threshold ; EMG signal ; Lactate metabolism ; Mean power frequency ; Incremental exercise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The surface electromyogram (EMG) from the vastus lateralis muscle and the metabolic and respiratory parameters were studied simultaneously during an incremental exercise in order to identify EMG signal modifications during the aerobic-anaerobic transition. Subjects performed an incremental test on the bicycle ergometer from an initial work load of 175 W to exhaustion by steps of 25 W. Ventilatory flow ( $$\dot V$$ E), oxygen uptake ( $$\dot V_{O_2 } $$ ) and carbon dioxide flow ( $$\dot V_{{\text{CO}}_{\text{2}} }$$ ) were recorded continuously. For lactate concentration determination, venous blood samples were collected during the final 30 s of each step. EMG signals were stored on magnetic tape. They were then converted into successive spectra to allow the study of EMG total power (PEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) evolutions. A non linear increase in blood lactate reflected by a breaking point at 250 W was observed. A change in $$\dot V_E /\dot V_{O_2 } $$ ratio occured at 275 W. PEMG value showed a non linear increase reflected by a breaking point at 275 W. MPF value increased from the first to the seventh step with a tendency to decrease at the last step. A great interindividual variance of EMG data was observed indicating the difficulty of correlating mean values of EMG parameters with mean values of blood lactate in order to explain sudden lactate increase by fast twitch fibre recruitment. However, comparison of individual EMG data suggests a progressive recruitment of fast twitch fibres as work load increases.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Adrenocorticotrophin ; Plasma cortisol ; Exercise ; Acute hypoxia ; Plasma lactate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol (F) concentrations were studied in six male subjects under normoxic (N) and acute hypoxic (H) conditions (altitude 3000 m) in a hypobaric chamber. Comparisons were made at rest, at 15, 30, and 60 min of exercise (65% $$\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{{\text{2max}}} } $$ ), and after a 10 min recovery period. Mean (±SE) resting plasma ACTH levels were significantly higher in H (18.6±5.7 pmol · l−1) than in N (9.6±1.6 pmol · l−1) but no difference in resting plasma cortisol was observed between the two conditions. Both plasma ACTH and F concentrations were significantly increased at 60 min of exercise and during the recovery period under normoxic conditions. Hypoxia did not affect the ACTH response to exercise but reduced cortisol elevation. The changes in plasma cortisol concentration from rest to exercise were significantly correlated to ACTH under normoxic (r=0.89,p〈0.001) but not under hypoxic (r=0.43, NS) conditions. Plasma lactate concentration was higher at the end of exercise in hypoxia (p〈0.01), and no correlation existed between plasma lactate and ACTH levels. These observations provide further evidence that at sea level the increase in plasma cortisol levels during exercise is the result of ACTH-induced steroidogenesis. The responses observed at rest and during exercise in hypoxia suggest that adrenal sensitivity for ACTH may be altered.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Glucose and fat feeding ; Glycogen sparing ; Ketone bodies ; Insulin ; Lipolysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that oral ingestion of lipids could increase endurance by slowing the rate of glycogen depletion. Trained rats were killed after a 2 h run on a rodent treadmill, following an intragastric infusion of water, glucose, medium chain triglycerides (MCT) or long chain triglycerides (LCT). Glucose and triglycerides were administered in equicaloric concentrations (50 kJ). The results show that oral ingestion of lipids (MCT or LCT) did not reduce glycogen depletion in liver, heart or skeletal muscle after exercise whereas the fat diet increased muscle and heart glycogen stores in resting conditions. In contrast, glucose feeding induced a significant sparing effect on endogenous carbohydrate utilization and reduced physical exercise lipolysis. These data indicated, firstly, that enhanced lipid availability induced by a single lipid meal before exercise was not able to modify the glycogen depletion occuring after exercise and, secondly, that the glucose/fatty acid cycle was not effective in these conditions. The comparison between lipids indicated that the effect on glycogen use of MCT did not differ from that of LCT, and did not seem to be of any particular importance during physical exercise.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Physical exercise ; Anti-G suit ; Atrial natriuretic factor ; Plasma renin activity ; Blood volume shift
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of enhanced venous return on atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) secretion during exercise and upright posture and the consequences on renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) activity. Six healthy male subjects were submitted to four different procedures. All procedures were performed in the same position, i.e. riding on a support with legs hanging. Two procedures were performed at rest: the subjects were studied after a 25-min rest in this position, with and without the lower limb fitted with an anti-G suit inflated to 60 mmHg. Two procedures were carried out with physical exercise; arm-cranking was performed in the same position with and without the anti-G suit inflated to 60 mmHg. Venous blood was collected before and after each procedure in order to measure plasma ANF, plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), plasma renin activity (PRA), corticotrophin (ACTH) and catecholamine level. The data mean ±SEM showed that the ANF plasma level decreased significantly (p〈0.05) from 32.5±4 to 28±6 pg · ml−1 after a 20-min rest in the upright posture, whereas this effect was absolished with anti-G suit inflation. Physical exercise with and without the anti-G suit increased the ANF level above control values (60±13.6 pg · ml−1 and 53±13 pg · ml−1): anti-G suit inflation had no significant effect. PRA increased after rest in an upright posture and during physical exercise; anti-G suit inflation abolished this increase in both conditions. PAC was not influenced by postural change but significantly increased in all exercise tests. ACTH increased to the same extent in both exercise tests. The plasma catecholamine level increased during upright posture and both physical exercise procedures. These results indiate that enhanced venous return during anti-G suit inflation increases ANF secretion at rest in an upright posture and that physical exercise greatly increases plasma ANF level independently of the anti-G suit inflation. They suggest that ANF release during exercise could be influenced by factors other than haemodynamic stimuli. The comparison between ANF and PRA changes during arm-cranking indicates that PRA is influenced more than ANF by blood volume displacement. The ANF increase during exercise does not inhibit aldosterone secretion.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Fat and protein feeding ; Glucose feeding ; Glycogen resynthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study examined the effect on glycogen resynthesis during recovery from exercise of feeding glucose orally to physically trained rats which had been fed for 5 weeks on high-protein low fat (HP), high-protein/long-chain triglyceride (LCT) or high carbohydrate (CHO) diets. Muscle glycogen remained low and hepatic gluconeogenesis was stimulated by long-term fat or high-protein diets. The trained rats received, via a stomach tube, 3 ml of a 34% glucose solution immediately after exercise (2 h at 20 m · min−1), followed by 1ml portions at hourly intervals until the end of the experiments. When fed glucose soleus muscle glycogen overcompensation occurred rapidly in the rats fed all three diets following prolonged exercise. In LCT- and CHO-fed rats, glucose feeding appeared more effective for soleus muscle repletion than in HP-fed rats. The liver demonstrated no appreciable glycogen overcompensation. A complete restoration of liver glycogen occurred within a 2- to 4-h recovery period in the rats fed HP-diet, while the liver glycogen store had been restored by only 67% in CHO-fed rats and 84% in LCT-fed rats within a 6-h recovery period. This coincides with low gluconeogenesis efficiency in these animals.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Fat feeding ; Exercise ; Glycogen ; Gluconeogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of this work was to find by which mechanisms an increased availability of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) reduced carbohydrate utilization during exercise. Rats were fed high-protein medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), high-protein long-chain triglycerides (LCT), carbohydrate (CHO) or high-protein low-fat (HP) diets for 5 weeks, and liver and muscle glycogen, gluconeogenesis and FFA oxidation were studied in rested and trained runner rats. In the rested state the hepatic glycogen store was decreased by fat and protein feeding, whereas soleus muscle glycogen concentration was only affected by high-protein diets. The percentage decrease in liver and muscle glycogen stores, after running, was similar in fat-fed, high-protein and CHO-fed rats. The fact that plasma glucose did not drastically change during exercise could be explained by a stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis: the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and liver phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) concentration increased as well as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc) while liver fructose 2,6-bisphosphate decreased and plasma FFA rose. In contrast, the stimulation of gluconeogenesis in rested HP-, MCT- and LCT-fed rats appears to be independent of cyclic AMP.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Repeated endurance exercise ; Moderate altitude ; Protein ; Free amino acids ; Protein supplementation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of two levels of protein intake on muscle performance and energy metabolism were studied in humans submitted to repeated daily sessions of prolonged exercise at moderate altitude. For this purpose, 29 healthy males, were exposed to seven successive stages of ski-mountaineering at altitudes between 2500 and 3 800 m, and to an isocaloric diet (4000 kcal·day−1, 16760 kJ·day−1) with either 1.5g·kg−1·day−1 (C group,n =14), or 2.5 g·kg−1·day−1 (PR group,n =15) protein intake. Measurements made after the ski-mountaineering programme did not show any change in body mass. The peak torque during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps muscle was unaffected by the repeated exercises, whereas the endurance time at 50% MVC was decreased in PR subjects (−26.8%,P〈0.001). Increased levels of both free fatty acids (+147%,P〈0.001) and glycerol (+170%,P〈0.001) observed in C subjects would suggest that lipolysis was enhanced after the repeated exercise. The plasma amino acid pattern was altered after completion of the ski-mountaineering programme; the plasma concentration of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) was significantly decreased in C subjects, whereas the higher level of protein intake (PR group) greatly minimized the exercise-induced decrease in serum BCAA.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Hindlimb suspension ; Chronic low ; frequency stimulation ; Fibre type composition ; Immunohistochemistry ; Biochemical properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The use of chronic low frequency stimulations (CLFS, 10 Hz bipolar current 8 h · day−1) as a countermeasure against unweighting-induced muscle alterations was investigated in rat soleus muscle during 21 days of hindlimb suspension (HS). It was shown that CLFS was able to minimize the soleus muscle atrophy induced by suspension (−29% in stimulated muscles compared to −56% in the non-stimulated soleus muscle). In parallel, CLFS partly prevented the HS-induced decreases in the cross-sectional area of type I fibres and in the total and myofibril protein contents. Stimulation at low frequency reduced the increase in the fast-myosin expression recorded with unweighting. Moreover, the HS-induced increase in glycolytic capacity was counteracted to a considerable extent by CLFS. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that CLFS can only partly prevent the HS-induced modifications in the soleus muscle. However, the limited effectiveness of CLFS to prevent muscle atrophy emphasized the critical role of reduced load bearing in the induction of solens muscle atrophy.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Key words Unloading  ;  Degeneration  ;  Muscle regeneration  ;  Muscle fibre necrosis  ;  Myosin heavy chain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to quantify the degenerative and regenerative changes in rat soleus muscle resulting from 3-week hindlimb suspension at 45° tilt (HS group, n = 8) and 4-week normal cage recovery (HS-R group, n = 7). Degenerative changes were quantified by microscope examination of muscle cross sections, and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of soleus muscles was studied by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At the end of 3-week hindlimb suspension, histological signs of muscle degenerative changes were detected in soleus muscles. There was a significant variability in the percentage of fibres referred to as degenerating (%dg) in individual animals in the HS group [%dg = 8.41 (SEM 0.5)%, range 4.66%–14.08%]. Moreover, %dg varied significantly along the length of the soleus muscle. The percentage of fibres with internal nuclei was less than %dg in HS-soleus muscles [4.12 (SEM 0.3)%, range 1.24%–8.86%]. In 4-week recovery rats, the greater part of the fibres that were not referred to as normal, retained central nuclei [15.8 (SEM 2.2)%, range 6.2%–21.1%]. A significant increase in the slow isoform of MHC was recorded in the HS-R rats, compared to muscles from age-matched rats (P 〈 0.01). These results would suggest that a cycle of myofibre degeneration-regeneration occurred during HS and passive recovery, and that the increased accumulation of slow MHC observed in soleus muscles after recovery from HS could be related to the prevalence of newly formed fibres.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Key words Unloading ; Degeneration ; Muscle regeneration ; Myosin heavy chain ; Calcium antagonist ; Running recovery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We examined the extent of morphological alterations and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) distribution in the rat soleus muscle after a 4-week period of spontaneous recovery or retraining after hindlimb suspension (HS). Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that dantrolene sodium, which affects the flux of calcium over the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, was able to attenuate muscle damage. Three groups of rats were submitted to 3 weeks of HS, followed by either 4 weeks of unrestricted cage activity (HC, n = 7), or running training for the same period and were compared to age-matched animals (C, n = 8). Trained rats were treated with either placebo or dantrolene sodium (HTP, HTD, n = 8 each, respectively). Four weeks after HS recovery, the percentage of myofibres with internal nuclei (%in) was determined by histological staining with hematoxylin and eosin. %in was affected by the individual rat (P 〈 0.001), and was higher in the mid-belly region of the muscle (P 〈 0.05). Muscle damage, as estimated by %in, was more extensive in trained rats (i.e. HTP and HTD) than in HC animals (23% and 12%, respectively). Moreover, dantrolene sodium tended to exert a protective effect on training-induced muscle injury. A 12% increase in type I MHC was observed in both HTP and HTD rats, in comparison with group C animals (P 〈 0.001). The relative proportion of type-I MHC was inversely correlated with %in (r = −0.65, P 〈 0.001). Running recovery led to an increased citrate synthase activity in comparison with that of C or HC rats. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that running recovery from HS increases the incidence of muscle damage, and that dantrolene sodium administration has only limited protective effects against exercise-induced muscle injury.
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