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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: estramustine phosphate ; prostatic cancer ; gastrointestinal absorption ; food intake ; calcium ; drug interaction ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of milk and food on the pharmacokinetics of estramustine phosphate was investigated in six patients with prostatic cancer. In a randomized three-way cross-over study, the patients were given single doses of the drug together with low calcium water, low calcium food and milk. The evaluation was based upon the plasma concentration of two metabolites, estromustine and estrone, as parent drug could not be detected in plasma. The tmax and lag time of estromustine were significantly increased by milk and food intake and Cmax and AUC were significantly decreased. In comparison with water, the AUC of estromustine was 41% when the drug was taken with milk and 67% after simultaneous intake of standardized food. Corresponding figures for the peak values were 32 and 57%, respectively. The effect of milk and food intake on the pharmacokinetics of estrone was similar. Studies in vitro demonstrated that the dissolution of estramustine phosphate disodium was markedly impaired in the presence of calcium. It was concluded that the rate and extent of absorption of estramustine phosphate were decreased when the drug was taken with milk or food due to the formation of a poorly absorbable calcium complex. To obtain high and reproducible absorption of Estracyt®, the drug should not be taken together with milk, milk products or other calcium-rich food or drugs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Nicotine ; bioavailability ; nasal spray
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The absolute bioavailability of nicotine administered nasally, as drops to the nasal conchae and nasal septum, and as a nasal spray, has been studied in eight healthy volunteers. Single nasal doses of 1 mg nicotine were given and plasma concentrations of nicotine were followed for 6 h. Compared to an intravenous infusion of nicotine, the bioavailability of the nasal administrations was 60 to 75%. The rate of absorption was fast, the maximum concentration being reached after about 10 min. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the different nasal treatments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: estramustine phosphate ; prostatic cancer ; pharmacokinetics ; metabolism ; estramustine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of estramustine phosphate (EMP) was studied in five prostatic cancer patients given single i.v. and oral doses of EMP in a cross-over study. Plasma and urinary concentrations of parent drug, estramustine, estromustine (the estrone analogue), estradiol and estrone were followed for 32 h. The elimination of intravenous EMP from plasma was biphasic. The mean volumes of distribution were small, being 43 and 108 ml/kg for the central and peripheral compartments, respectively. The plasma clearance was 64 ml/kg/h, and the half-lives of the two phases were 0.16 and 1.27 h. Metabolism was the major route of elimination of EMP. It was readily dephosphorylated and oxidized to yield the cytotoxic metabolites estramustine and estromustine. Estromustine was the main metabolite in plasma. When given orally EMP underwent extensive presystemic dephosphorylation, which started in the gastrointestinal tract. The relative bioavailability of estromustine after administration of EMP-capsules was 44%, which reflects incomplete absorption of EMP rather than first-pass metabolism of estromustine. The terminal half-life of estromustine was 10–20 h, which suggests that EMP might be given once or twice a day.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Chromosome aberrations ; Pharmacokinetics ; Tauromustine ; Lung cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Tauromustine (TCNU) is an exploratory drug that has demonstrated activity in various solid tumors. We examined chromosome aberrations and plasma levels of the drug in two groups of patients receiving either a single dose of 130 mg/m2 or 40 mg/m2 on 3 consecutive days. Peak plasma concentrations (mean ±SD) were obtained at a similar time after both treatments, i.e., at 38±25, 32±24, 28±14, and 40±26 min after administration of 130 mg/m2 on day 1 and after that of 40 mg/m2 on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In addition, the cumulative area under the curve (AUC value) determined after administration of 40 mg/m2×3 was similar to that noted after treatment with a single dose of 130 mg/m2, i.e., 180 and 179 μg min ml-1, respectively. Both treatments induced chromosome aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. A dose-dependent increase in the number of CAs was found, with 40 mg/m2 producing 5.5% CAs and 130 mg/m2 yielding 20.9% CAs at 24 h after treatment. In addition, although the drug concentration declined to a level under the detection limit between the daily treatments, drug-induced chromosome damage was cumulative, with the 90-min values increasing from 4.8% on day 1 to 14.3% CAs on day 3. In individual patients, no correlation was found between CAs and kinetic parameters; however, the total mean CA yield was in agreement with the total drug exposure (CAs, 14.3% and 14.6%, AUC 180±62.8 and 179±115 μg min ml-1, respectively).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetic properties of tauromustine (TCNU) were studied in 31 cancer patients who participated in phase I trials. The patients received single oral doses of tauromustine in the range of 20–170 mg/m2. Plasma samples were taken over 24 h after administration and analysed for tauromustine by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Parent TCNU could be demonstrated in the plasma of all patients. Its absorption was rapid (tmax=38±22 min), the half-life was 57±22 min (mean±SD), and maximal concentration (Cmax) and AUC values were linearly related to the dose level. Thus, our study does not indicate dose-dependent pharmacokinetics for the drug in the range of 20–170 mg/m2. Thrombocytopenia was the dose-limiting toxicity of TCNU; the reduction of platelet counts appeared to be linearly related to the log dose and Cmax and AUC values. TCNU appears to exhibit pharmacokinetic properties that are different from those of other nitrosoureas, which might be important for the clinical effect of the drug.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0646
    Keywords: TCNU ; BCNU ; CCNU ; MeCCNU ; chlorozotocin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A novel nitrosourea, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-[2-(dimethylaminosulfonyl) ethyl]-1-nitrosourea (TCNU) tauromustine, has been investigated in a broad anti-tumour screen and, in depth toxicology and initial pharmacokinetics carried out. TCNU and its two metabolites were found to exhibit equal or better oral efficacy than that of BCNU, CCNU, MeCCNU or chorozotocin against L1210 leukemia, Walker mammary carcinoma, Lewis Lung, Harding Passey melanoma and colon carcinoma C26. The toxicological profile of TCNU after acute and 3 months treatment was similar in mice and rats to that of CCNU, with the exception that, TCNU did not cause the chronic liver disturbances found for CCNU. In dogs treated for 6 weeks with TCNU leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were the major side effects. Parent TCNU was found in all dogs. The absorption was fast, the maximum level being reach after 25 mins and the mean absorption time was 22 mins. The mean half life was 16.1 mins after intravenous and 17.4 after oral administration. The combination of these factors make TCNU an interesting clinical candidate.
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