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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The urinary excretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline was increased during the first few days of morphine administration in rats. Following the initial rise, the urinary excretion of both amines decreased during one week of treatment with the same dose (tolerance phenomenon); however, on increasing the morphine dose, the cyclic pattern of initial rise and subsequent fall in catecholamine excretion reappeared. During abstinence after three weeks of morphine administration, the animals where markedly irritable and presented characteristic vegetative symptoms. At the same time there was an increased excretion of adrenaline, amounting to 15 times normal, and a twofold rise of the noradrenaline excretion, both lasting for about 10 days.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 50 (1976), S. 237-240 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Tardive dyskinesia ; Acute dystonia ; Haloperidol ; Animal model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In three cebus monkeys the chronic daily administration of haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg/day orally) created sedation and parkinsonism during the first 5–7 weeks. Later the animals developed signs reminiscent of acute dystonia, as seen in the clinic during treatment with neuroleptics. These signs were dose-dependent and in extreme cases included widespread tonic and clonic seizures. After 3 and 12 months, respectively, two of the cebus monkeys developed buccolingual signs (grimacing and tongue protrusion), similar to tardive dyskinesia in the clinic. The tardive dyskinesia symptoms were reduced in a dose-dependent manner after each haloperidol administration, being most pronounced in the morning before haloperidol was given. Biperiden reduced acute dystonia but reinstated signs of tardive dyskinesia, which had been abolished by haloperidol. It is suggested that cebus monkeys may provide a useful animal model for the study of neurologic long-term complications from neuroleptic drugs.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Enkephalin analogues ; Intranigral infusions ; Dyskinetic biting ; Tardive dyskinesia ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Leu- and Metenkephalin (Lenk and Menk) and their more stable analogues d-Ala-Leu- and d-Ala-Meten-kephalin (DALenk and DAMenk) as well as d-ala-d-Leu-and d-Ala-d-Metenkephalin (DADLenk and DADMenk) were infused bilaterally into substantia nigra in awake rats and oral movements were recorded for 90 min. DADLenk and DADMenk elicited dose-dependent biting dyskinesias with a chewing rate of about 90 jaw movements/min. DALenk produced a similar but weaker effect, whereas DAMenk, Lenk and Menk were ineffective in the doses given. These findings suggest a possible enkephalinergic mechanism underlying neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesias.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Tardive dyskinesia ; Animal model ; Rebound deterioration sign ; Monitoring neurological side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two Cebus apella monkeys with haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia have been studied. Substitution of chlorpromazine, thioridazine, clozapine, melperone, or fluphenazine for the daily haloperidol administration temporarily reduced the signs of tardive dyskinesia. In a monkey with low-grade symptoms, persisting for more than 100 days after with-drawal of haloperidol, neuroleptic drugs induced a typical sequence of events: first the dyskinetic movements were abolished, but 1–3 days after administration of a single dose of a neuroleptic drug there was a rebound worsening of symptoms. It was noticed that this aggravation of symptoms corresponded in magnitude and duration to the approximate liability of each compound to induce tardive dyskinesia in man. It is therefore suggested that this animal model could be used to monitor neurological side effects in neuroleptic drugs.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A single acute injection and 14 daily injections of 100 mg/kg of cocaine did not alter the brain content of noradrenaline or the adrenal gland content of adrenaline and noradrenaline in rats. The urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline was greatly increased, however, during 14 days of cocaine administration. On the 14th day of treatment the sum of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the urine was five times the normal level. After withdrawal there was a slow return, especially of the urinary noradrenaline which was not quite normal 17 days after withdrawal. The findings are discussed in relation to the known dependence-producing properties of cocaine and compared with those of morphine.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Animal model ; Rat ; Tardive dyskinesia ; Oral dyskinesia ; Chronic haloperidol ; Neuroleptic ; 6-Hydroxydopamine ; Kainic acid ; Frontal cortex ; Striatum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract After 10–12 weeks of chronic haloperidol administration rats with frontal cortex ablations or lesions induced by intracerebroventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine developed vacuous chewing behavior at a fairly stable frequency (bifrontal ablations had 15–20, 6-hydroxy-dopamine lesioned rats 7–12 chewing movements/min). This behavior persisted for 10 weeks after the last injection of haloperidol decanoate. However, rats with frontal cortex lesions developed a low rate of vacuous chewings (4–8 chewings/min) even without haloperidol administration. Bilateral intrastriatal injections of kainic acid in combination with chronic haloperidol administration did not cause chewing movements in excess of unlesioned haloperidol-treated controls. Pharmacological tests of this animal model for tardive dyskinesia (TD) revealed similarities to human TD, but also differences. Dopamine agonists (apomorphine) and antagonists (haloperidol) both lowered chewing behavior analogous to reported effects on TD and so did gabaculine. The cholinergic drugs physostigmine and pilocarpine, however, increased chewing in rats, while anticholinergics (atropine) reduced it, in contrast to reported effects on human TD.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 97 (1989), S. 496-500 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Fluphenazine ; Learning ; Monkeys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cebus apella monkeys were chronically administered the antipsychotic drug fluphenazine decanoate for periods ranging from 3.5 to 5.5 years. In the present study, four of these monkeys and two controls were tested for cognitive abilities on a spatial learning task, which consisted of an original discrimination and four reversals of that discrimination. No effect of fluphenazine administration was seen in the rate of learning the original discrimination, but the carryover of learning across discrimination reversals was significantly reduced by fluphenazine. After overtraining on the original discrimination, the controls showed the normal difficulty in learning the first reversal. The fluphenazine-treated monkeys showed no such disruption. On subsequent reversals, the controls showed continually improving performance, so that on the third and fourth reversals they had near-perfect scores. On the other hand, the fluphenazine-treated monkeys showed no change over the four reversals. Unlike normal monkeys, their learning did not improve with practice. Although simple forms of learning seem to be relatively unaffected by chronic fluphenazine administration, more complex learning is disrupted.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Oral dyskinesia ; Chronic neuroleptic ; Vacuous chewing movements ; Movement disorder ; Tardive dyskinesia ; Nigral glutamic acid decarboxylase ; Striato-nigral GABA-ergic system ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Following eight monthly haloperidol decanoate injections rats showed an increased rate of vacuous chewing movements (VCM's), which gradually disappeared within 4 drug-free months. Another single dose of non-decanoate haloperidol reinstated a second increase in VCM rate which was still significant after 2 months. The glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the substantia nigra of these chronically haloperidol-treated rats was lower than untreated controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between individual VCM rates and nigral GAD activity. No corresponding changes occurred in other brain regions. The depression of nigral GAD may reflect a reduced tissue density of GABA-ergic axon terminals within the descending striato-nigral pathway.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 255 (1975), S. 418-419 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In preliminary experiments female NMRI mice (body weight at end of experiment 27 + 0,5 g) were pretreated with BSA-morphine once a week for 6 months as described by Berkowitz and Spector1. It was found, however, when the antiserum properties were tested in vitro, that to achieve a 50% displacement ...
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