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  • 1
    Abstract: Tractography based on non-invasive diffusion imaging is central to the study of human brain connectivity. To date, the approach has not been systematically validated in ground truth studies. Based on a simulated human brain data set with ground truth tracts, we organized an open international tractography challenge, which resulted in 96 distinct submissions from 20 research groups. Here, we report the encouraging finding that most state-of-the-art algorithms produce tractograms containing 90% of the ground truth bundles (to at least some extent). However, the same tractograms contain many more invalid than valid bundles, and half of these invalid bundles occur systematically across research groups. Taken together, our results demonstrate and confirm fundamental ambiguities inherent in tract reconstruction based on orientation information alone, which need to be considered when interpreting tractography and connectivity results. Our approach provides a novel framework for estimating reliability of tractography and encourages innovation to address its current limitations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29116093
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  130. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20130430-20130503; München; DOC13dgch846 /20130426/
    Publication Date: 2013-04-27
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  A severe disease of farm-raised shrimp, Penaeus chinensis has spread throughout Chinese coasts since 1993. Recently, a baculo-like virus has been diagnosed as the causative agent for this epidemic disease. The electron microscopic observation of the virus is described. Thin sections of hepatopancreatic and hypodermic tissue of diseased P. chinensis showed many rod-shaped, enveloped, baculo-like virions in hypertrophied nuclei of infected cells. The virion was filled with a highly electron dense core. No occlusion bodies have been found. Negative stained intact virions, purified from infected tissues by centrifugation on sucrose discontinuous gradients, demonstrated that the viral envelops had been broken, but the cylindrical nucleocapsids could be observed clearly. The nucleocapsid of average 62 nm × 314 nm was composed of a helix system of capsomers, giving rise to an open stacked ring structure and repeating approximately every third ring. The number of repeating unit was 13 to 15. We propose that the virus described here could be designated as Non-Occluded Shrimp Virus (NOSV) or Penaeus chinensis Baculo-Like Virus (PcBLV).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    FEBS Letters 281 (1991), S. 97-100 
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Ascites cell ; Membrane vesicle ; Plasma membrane
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0016-6480
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The charge-transfer (CT) crystal, anthracene-PMDA (pyro-mellitic acid dianhydride), is a prototype quasi-one-dimensional neutral mixed-stack solid2'3. The donor (D) anthracene molecules and the acceptor (A) PMDA molecules (Fig. 1) are arranged in one-dimensional stacks with alternating D and A. ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Biochemical techniques, including pH variation, outsalting, ultracentrifugation, gel filtration chromatography and electrophoresis, etc., have been employed together with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to study the rare earth elements (REE) bound proteins in the natural plant fern,Dicranopteris dichitoma. INAA was also used to identify whether the proteins were bound firmly with REE. The results obtained show that two REE bound proteins (RBP-I and RBP-II) have been separated. The molecular weight of RBP-I on Sephadex G-200 gel column is about 8·105 Daltons and that of RBP-II is less than 12,400 Daltons, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE of the two proteins shows that they mainly have two protein subunits with MW 14,100 and 38,700 Daltons. They are probably conjugated proteins, glycoproteins with different glyco-units.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of plants and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of plants (e.g., leaf stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most plants in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675–3358 μg/g) Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of plants were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some plants relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fernCitrus reticulata andBrassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (forCamellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera andZiziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (forGardenia jasminoides).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Cytoplasm localization ; Cell determination ; Generative cell ; Plastid nucleoid ; Plumbago zeylanica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The behavior of the generative cell during male gametophyte development inPlumbago zeylanica was examined by epifluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy with organelle nucleoid as a cytoplasm marker. When the thin sections stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindoIe (DAPI) were observed under an epifluorescence microscope, two types of fluorescence spots were detected in the cytoplasm of the pollen cells before the second mitosis. The spots emitting stronger fluorescence were confirmed as plastid nucleoids and those emitting dimmer fluorescence were mitochondrial nucleoids. Before the first mitosis, both plastid and mitochondrial nucleoids distributed randomly in the cytoplasm of the microspore. A small lenticular generative cell formed with attachment to the interior of the intine after the mitosis. Small vacuoles were found in the lenticular cell. In the cytoplasm of the lenticular cell, both plastid nucleoids and the small vacuoles were distributed randomly at the very beginning but began to migrate in opposite directions immediately. Plastid nucleoids aggregated to the side of the cell that faces the pollen center and the small vacuoles aggregated to the side of the cell that attaches to the inline. As the result, the lenticular generative cell appeared highly polarized in cytoplasm location soon after the first mitosis. In accordance with the definition of the cytoplasm polarization, the primary wall between the generative and the vegetative cells began to flex and the lenticular generative cell started to protrude towards the pollen center. When the generative cell peeled away from the inline, it was spherical in shape with the pole that aggregated plastids towards the vegetative nucleus. But the cell direction appeared to be transformed immediately. The pole that aggregated small vacuoles turned to the position towards the vegetative nucleus and the pole that aggregated plastid nucleoids turned to the position countering to the vegetative nucleus. A cellular protuberance formed at the edge of the pole that aggregated small vacuoles and elongated into a tapered end that got into contact with the vegetative nucleus. The polarization of the cytoplasm kept constant throughout the second mitosis. The small vacuoles that apportioned to the sperm cell which attached the vegetative nucleus (the leading sperm cell) disappeared during sperm cell maturation. Plastid nucleoids were apportioned to the other sperm cell (the trailing sperm cell) completely. Mitochondrial nucleoids became undetectable after the second mitosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Biparental inheritance ; Plastid transmission ; Mitochondrion transmission ; Fertilization ; Pelargonium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Based on the organelle differences between egg and sperm cells inPelargonium hortorum, the zygote, proembryo, and endosperm were examined under the transmission electron microscope. Plastids and mitochondria in the egg cell are significantly different from those of the sperm cell. Egg plastids are starch-containing and less electron dense. They appear circular, elliptical irregular elongate in sections. Sperm cell plastids are relatively electrondense, mostly cup-shaped or dumbbell and devoid of starch granules. Mitochondria of the egg cell are giant and mostly cup-shaped while sperm mitochondria are smaller and usually circular in section. Double fertilization is completed by 24 h after pollination and the pollen tube can be seen in the degenerated synergid. In the zygote, plastids and mitochondria from male and female gametes can be distinguished by their characteristic differences. Moreover, paternal and maternal organelles appear to be distributed at random in the zygote. Aside from the pollen tube and its released starch granules, there is no enucleated cytoplasmic body in the degenerated synergid. Two days after pollination, the zygote undergoes one transverse division to form a 2-celled proembryo which consists of one larger vacuolated basal cell and one smaller densely cytoplasmic apical cell. Paternal and maternal organelles can be detected in both cells of the proembryo and also in the endosperm at this stage. From these results, it can be concluded that plastids and mitochondria from both male and female gametes have been transmitted into the apical cell of the proembryo and most probably to the following generation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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