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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 8 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Small environmental chamber tests were conducted to characterize the emissions of a toxic chemical compound – methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) – from three different alkyd paints. It was found that MEKO emissions occurred almost immediately after each alkyd paint was applied to a pine board. Due to the fast emission pattern, more than 90% of the MEKO emitted was released within 10 hours after painting. The peak concentrations of MEKO in chamber air correlated well with the MEKO content in the paint. Material balance showed that good recovery (more than 68%) was achieved between the MEKO applied with the paint and the MEKO emitted. The chamber data were simulated by a first order decay emission model assuming the MEKO emissions were mostly gas-phase mass transfer controlled. The model was used to predict indoor MEKO concentrations during and after painting in a test house. It was found that the predicted test house MEKO concentrations during and after the painting exceeded a suggested indoor exposure limit of 0.1 mg/m3 for all three paints. The predicted MEKO concentrations exceeded even the lower limit of a suggested sensory irritation range of 4 to 18 mg/m3 with two of the three paints tested. The model was also used to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of risk reduction options including selection of lower MEKO paints and higher ventilation during painting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 7 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of two substrates - a stainless steel plate and a gypsum board - on the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a latex paint were evaluated by environmental chamber tests. It was found that the amount of VOCs emitted from the painted stainless steel was 2 to 10 times more than that from the painted gypsum board during the 2-week test period. The dominant chemical species emitted were also different between the two substrates. Data analysis indicated that most VOC emissions from the painted stainless steel occurred in the first 100 h via a fast, evaporation-like process. On the other hand, the majority of the gypsum board VOCs were emitted in a later stage via a slow, diffusion-controlled process. There were measurable emissions of VOCs 11 months after paint application on the gypsum board. It is suggested that, instead of the routinely used substrates such as stainless steel plates, real substrates such as wood or gypsum board should be used for the evaluation of emissions in indoor environments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 12 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 4 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Full-scale residential house tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product – wood stain – on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a function of time after the application of the wood stain. It was found that the test house concentrations can be simulated by an integrated IAQ model which takes into consideration source, sink and ventilation effects. The alkane emissions were controlled by an evaporation-like process. Data analysis indicated that there were significant sink effects in the test house. Different sink strengths were estimated by the model for the three alkane species. An inverse relationship between the test house sink strength and the alkane volatility was found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 1 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The interaction of indoor air pollutants with interior surfaces (i.e., sinks) is a well known, but poorly understood, phenomenon. Studies have shown that re-emissions of adsorbed organic vapours can contribute to elevated concentrations of organics in indoor environments. Research is being conducted in small environmental test chambers to develop data for predicting sink behaviour. This paper reports on the development of sink models based on fundamental mass transfer theory. The results of experiments conducted to determine the magnitude and rate of adsorption and desorption of vapour phase organic compounds for several materials are presented. Five materials were evaluated: carpet, painted wallboard, ceiling tile, window glass, and upholstery. Two organic compounds were tested with each material: tetrachloroethylene (a common cleaning solvent) and ethylbenzene (a common constituent of petroleum-based solvents widely used in consumer products). The results of the experimental work are presented showing the relevant sink effect parameters for each material tested and comparing the sorptive behaviour of the two organic compounds evaluated. An indoor air quality (IAQ) model was modified to incorporate adsorption and desorption sink rates. The model was used to predict the temporal history of the concentration of total vapour phase organics in a test house after application of a wood finishing product. The predicted results are presented and compared to measured values. Suggestions for further research on indoor sinks are presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Emissions from freshly applied paints and other coatings can cause elevated indoor concentrations of vapor-phase organics. Methods are needed to determine the emission rates over time for these products. Some success has been achieved using simple first-order decay models to evaluate data from small dynamic test chambers. While such empirical approaches may be useful for assessing the emission potmial of indoor sources, a more fundamental approach is needed to fully elucidate the relevant mass transfer processes. As a first step, a simple model based on boundary layer theory has been developed. In this model, the mass transfer rate is assumed to be controlled by the boundary layer mass transfer coefficient, the saturation vapor pressure of the material being emitted, and the mass of volatile material remaining in the source at any point in time. Static and dynamic chamber tests and test house experiments were conducted to obtain model validation data, Preliminary validaion results indicated that the model can be applied to different products with similar solvents. The model provides a better fit to chamber-derived emissions data than the empirical first-order decay model, especially over the decaying portion of the concentration vs. time curve
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 2 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The emission charaaaistics of four organic compounds (non-ane, decam, undecane, and 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene)from wood stain have been measured in an environmental chamber It was found that the emission patterns of the four organic compounds can be described by a two-phase model. Phase 1 represents the period when the wood stain is relatively wet. Phase 2 is when the wood stain becomes relatively dry. The changes of emission mechanisms between the two phases were reflcted by the significantly different emission rate canstants measured during the two periods and the relationship between the relative rate constant, the relative vapor pressure, and the relative diffusivity. A double-exponential model was established that can be used to predict the relative emission rates of the four organic compounds fiom the wood stain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Soot particles ; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ; NO2 ; HNO3 ; heterogeneous reactions ; kinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract An experimental technique for studying atmospheric heterogeneous reactions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on particle surfaces is reported. Particle bound organics were reacted in a 200 liter Teflon continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), with vapor phase oxidants. To provide a source of chemically stable particles for the CSTR, soot particles from a residential wood stove were first introduced during under darkness into a 25 m3 outdoor Teflon chamber. Air containing the particles was then added at a constant flow to the CSTR. The rates of heterogeneous reactions were obtained by comparing reacted particle samples with unreacted ones. The derivation of rate expressions for heterogeneous reactions in the CSTR is described. The use of the technique for a study of the nitration of selected soot particle bound PAH species by NO2 and HNO3 is demonstrated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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