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  • 1
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 145 p. : , ill.
    Language: English
    Note: Thesis (PhD) -- Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, 2012.
    Location: DKFZ
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-10-15
    Description: Platelets are highly abundant cell fragments of the peripheral blood that originate from megakaryocytes. Beside their well-known role in wound healing and hemostasis, they are emerging mediators of the immune response and implicated in a variety of pathophysiological conditions including cancer. Despite their anucleate nature, they harbor a diverse set of RNAs, which are subject to an active sorting mechanism from megakaryocytes into proplatelets and affect platelet biogenesis and function. However, sorting mechanisms are poorly understood, but RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been suggested to play a crucial role. Moreover, RBPs may regulate RNA translation and decay following platelet activation. In concert with other regulators, including microRNAs, long non-coding and circular RNAs, RBPs control multiple steps of the platelet life cycle. In this review, we will highlight the different RNA species within platelets and their impact on megakaryopoiesis, platelet biogenesis and platelet function. Additionally, we will focus on the currently known concepts of post-transcriptional control mechanisms important for RNA fate within platelets with a special emphasis on RBPs.
    Print ISSN: 1661-6596
    Electronic ISSN: 1422-0067
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-05-13
    Description: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the major causes of cancer-associated deaths worldwide, with a dismal prognosis that has not significantly changed over the last decades. Transcriptional analysis has provided valuable insights into pancreatic tumorigenesis. Specifically, pancreatic cancer subtypes were identified, characterized by specific mutations and gene expression changes associated with differences in patient survival. In addition to differentially regulated mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), were shown to have subtype-specific expression patterns. Hence, we aimed to characterize prognostic lncRNAs with deregulated expression in the squamous subtype of PDAC, which has the worst prognosis. Extensive in silico analyses followed by in vitro experiments identified long intergenic non-coding RNA 261 (LINC00261) as a downregulated lncRNA in the squamous subtype of PDAC, which is generally associated with transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling in human cancer cells. Its genomic neighbor, the transcription factor forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2), regulated LINC00261 expression by direct binding of the LINC00261 promoter. CRISPR-mediated knockdown and promoter knockout validated the importance of LINC00261 in TGFβ-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and established the epithelial marker E-cadherin, an important cell adhesion protein, as a downstream target of LINC00261. Consequently, depletion of LINC00261 enhanced motility and invasiveness of PANC-1 cells in vitro. Altogether, our data suggest that LINC00261 is an important tumor-suppressive lncRNA in PDAC that is involved in maintaining a pro-epithelial state associated with favorable disease outcome.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-6694
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-07-27
    Description: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) belong to the deadliest malignancies in the western world. Mutations in TP53 and KRAS genes along with some other frequent polymorphisms occur almost universally and are major drivers of tumour initiation. However, these mutations cannot explain the heterogeneity in therapeutic responses and differences in overall survival observed in PDAC patients. Thus, recent classifications of PDAC tumour samples have leveraged transcriptome-wide gene expression data to account for epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that may contribute to this deadly disease. Intriguingly, long intervening RNAs (lincRNAs) are a special class of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that can control gene expression programs on multiple levels thereby contributing to cancer progression. However, their subtype-specific expression and function as well as molecular interactions in PDAC are not fully understood yet. In this study, we systematically investigated the expression of lincRNAs in pancreatic cancer and its molecular subtypes using publicly available data from large-scale studies. We identified 27 deregulated lincRNAs that showed a significant different expression pattern in PDAC subtypes suggesting context-dependent roles. We further analyzed these lincRNAs regarding their common expression patterns. Moreover, we inferred clues on their functions based on correlation analyses and predicted interactions with RNA-binding proteins, microRNAs, and mRNAs. In summary, we identified several PDAC-associated lincRNAs of prognostic relevance and potential context-dependent functions and molecular interactions. Hence, our study provides a valuable resource for future investigations to decipher the role of lincRNAs in pancreatic cancer.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-6694
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-09-17
    Description: Nearly 7.5% of all human protein-coding genes have been assigned to the class of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and over the past decade, RBPs have been increasingly recognized as important regulators of molecular and cellular homeostasis. RBPs regulate the post-transcriptional processing of their target RNAs, i.e., alternative splicing, polyadenylation, stability and turnover, localization, or translation as well as editing and chemical modification, thereby tuning gene expression programs of diverse cellular processes such as cell survival and malignant spread. Importantly, metastases are the major cause of cancer-associated deaths in general, and particularly in oral cancers, which account for 2% of the global cancer mortality. However, the roles and architecture of RBPs and RBP-controlled expression networks during the diverse steps of the metastatic cascade are only incompletely understood. In this review, we will offer a brief overview about RBPs and their general contribution to post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Subsequently, we will highlight selected examples of RBPs that have been shown to play a role in oral cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Last but not least, we will present targeting strategies that have been developed to interfere with the function of some of these RBPs.
    Print ISSN: 1661-6596
    Electronic ISSN: 1422-0067
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: The ability of cancer cells to adopt various migration modes (the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness) is a substantive obstacle in the treatment of metastasis, yet still an incompletely understood process. We performed a comparison of publicly available transcriptomic datasets from various cell types undergoing a switch between the mesenchymal and amoeboid migration modes. Strikingly, lncRNA MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) was one of three genes that were found upregulated in all amoeboid cells analyzed. Accordingly, downregulation of MALAT1 in predominantly amoeboid cell lines A375m2 and A2058 resulted in decrease of active RhoA (Ras homolog family member A) and was accompanied by the amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in A375m2 cells. Moreover, MALAT1 downregulation in amoeboid cells led to increased cell proliferation. Our work is the first to address the role of MALAT1 in MAT/AMT (mesenchymal to amoeboid transition/amoeboid to mesenchymal transition) and suggests that increased MALAT1 expression is a common feature of amoeboid cells.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-6694
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Aluminum magnesium hydroxide ; antithixotropy ; bentonite ; emulsions ; montmorillonite ; Pickering emulsions ; layered double hydroxide ; solid stabilized emulsions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract  Paraffin/water emulsions were stabilized by colloidal particles without surface active agents. Mixtures of two types of particles with opposite signs of charge were used: a layered double hydroxide (the hydroxide layers carry positive charges) and the clay mineral montmorillonite (the silicate layers carry negative charges). The emulsions were very stable and did not separate a coherent oil phase. The stability of the emulsion (no oil coalescence after centrifugation) was independent of the mixing ratio of both the compounds when the total solid content was 〉0.5%. Solid contents up to 2.0% were optimal. In contrast to stability, flow behavior of the emulsion was dependent on the mass fraction χ of the hydroxide. The maxima of viscosity and yield value were observed at χ≈0.2–0.3; the emulsion showed pronounced antithixotropic behavior. Weak thixotropic properties, smaller viscosities and yield values were observed at χ≤0.2 and ≥0.5. In the absence of the clay mineral, the double hydroxide particles stabilize by forming envelopes around the oil droplets. Addition of bentonites creates a three-dimensional network of particles with high elasticity which impedes coalescence of the oil droplets.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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