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  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis in rheumatoid synovitis was studied using peripheral and synovial fluid polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and rheumatic synovial lining cells. No differences were found in LTB4 synthesis between peripheral PMNs from healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients. When peripheral and synovial PMNs from the same RA patient were compared, arachidonic acidinduced LTB4 synthesis in synovial fluid PMNs was increased 1.7–7.2 fold, whereas the response to Ca ionophore A23187 stimulation was similar. This suggests 5-lipoxygenase stimulating factor(s) in inflamed joints. Rheumatic synovial lining cells in a primary cell culture produced small amounts of LTB4, the concentrations being less than 0.1 per cent of those of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 synthesis in synovial cells was increased when arachidonic acid or interleukin-1 was added to the culture, whereas LTB4 production remained unaltered. The present results suggest that in inflamed joints LTB4 originates mainly from PMNs whereas synovial lining cells are the source for PGE2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Somatosensory cortex ; Cytoarchitectonic areas ; Magnetic fields ; Evoked responses ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Magnetic responses evoked by stimulation of the mixed median nerve at the wrist and its cutaneous branches on the glabrous skin of the index and middle fingers were studied. The first responses to mixed nerve stimulation peaked at 19–24 ms, and those to cutaneous nerve stimulation about 4 ms later. The responses, up to a latency of 150 ms, reversed in polarity between the upper and lower parts of the rolandic fissure. Equivalent dipoles for the mixed nerve stimulation were stronger and they lay statistically significantly deeper from the scalp than those activated by the cutaneous nerve stimulation. It is suggested that mixed nerve stimulation activates areas 3a and 3b whereas cutaneous stimulation activates mainly area 3b at the human primary somatosensory cortex. Statistical procedures were developed for comparison of different field patterns and for determining confidence limits of source model parameters. For these purposes the quality and quantity of the noise were studied. The error caused by inaccuracies in the positioning of the magnetometer was found to be minimal in comparison with the signal noise which was estimated from the standard deviation of the averaged response.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Somatosensory cortex ; Magnetoencephalography ; Evoked response ; Parietal lobe ; Source model ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We recorded somatosensory evoked magnetic fields from ten healthy, right-handed subjects with a 122-channel whole-scalp SQUID magnetometer. The stimuli, exceeding the motor threshold, were delivered alternately to the left and right median nerves at the wrists, with interstimulus intervals of 1, 3, and 5 s. The first responses, peaking around 20 and 35 ms, were explained by activation of the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) hand area. All subjects showed additional deflections which peaked after 85 ms; the source locations agreed with the sites of the secondary somatosensory cortices (SII) in both hemispheres. The SII responses were typically stronger in the left than the right hemisphere. All subjects had an additional source, not previously reported in human evoked response data, in the contralateral parietal cortex. This source was posterior and medial to the SI hand area, and evidently in the wall of the postcentral sulcus. It was most active at 70–110 ms.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Auditory cortex ; Attention ; Magnetoencephalography ; Speech sounds ; Evoked responses ; Processing negativity ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied the effect of selective listening on the neuromagnetic evoked activity of the human auditory cortex. In the word categorization experiment the stimuli were 5-letter words, each beginning with /k/. Half of them were targets, i.e., names of animals or plants, and half other meaningful Finnish words. In the duration discrimination experiment equiprobable tones of 425 ms (targets) or 600 ms duration were presented. In both experiments the interstimulus interval (ISI) was 2.3 s and the stimuli of the two classes were presented randomly. Subjects either ignored the stimuli (reading condition) or counted the number of targets (listening condition). The magnetic field over the head was measured with a 7-channel 1st-order SQUID-gradiometer. The stimuli evoked a transient response followed by a sustained field. The transient response did not differ between the two conditions but the sustained field was significantly larger in the listening than reading condition; the increase began 120–200 ms after stimulus onset and continued for several hundred milliseconds. The equivalent source locations of both transient and sustained responses agreed with activation of the supratemporal auditory cortex. In the dichotic listening experiment 25-ms square-wave stimuli were presented randomly and equiprobably either to the left or to the right ear at an ISI of 0.8–1 s, either alone or in presence of a speech masker. Counting the stimuli of either ear resulted in differences between responses to relevant and irrelevant sounds. The difference began 140–150 ms after stimulus onset and peaked at 200–240 ms. During monaural speech masking, N100m was larger for attended than ignored stimuli. The results suggest that neural mechanisms underlying direction of attention include modification of the activity of the auditory cortex and that the mechanisms are similar for words and tones.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Trente huit malades ont bénéficié d'une arthroplastie par prothèse de Neer II pour arthrite rhumatoïde de l'épaule. Leur âge était compris entre 23 et 68 ans. Les opérés ont été suivis en moyenne 20,9 mois. Quarante épaules étaient indolores et la fonction était acceptable 21 fois. Globalement il y avait 15 excellents ou bons résultats, 16 passables et 10 mauvais. La constatation radiologique la plus fréquente était une subluxation vers le haut observée dans 20 épaules. Un liseré incomplet autour de la pièce glénoïdienne a été noté dans 32% des cas et autour de la prothèse humérale dans 5%. Il n'y avait aucun descellement complet.
    Notes: Summary Thirty-eight patients had a Neer II replacement for rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder. The average age at operation varied from 23 to 68 years. The average follow-up was 20.9 months. Forty shoulders were free of pain and function was reasonable in 21. Overall evaluation showed an excellent or satisfactory result in 15, 16, were acceptable and 10 poor. The most frequent radiological finding was upward subluxation which was present in 20 shoulders. An incomplete radiolucent zone was found around the glenoid component in 32% and around the humeral in 5%; there was no gross loosening.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Forty-five patients were reviewed on average 5.7 years after corrective osteotomy for symptomatic distal radius malunion. Restoration of anatomy and function was assessed compared with the contralateral wrist. It was found that osteotomy of the distal radius alone did not completely restore normal anatomy and relieve symptoms, and in several cases a second operation was needed. Osteoarthritic changes in the radiocarpal and radioulnar joints were common, and they correlated with restriction in range of motion, but not with pain. Range of motion and grip power were reduced compared to the unaffected hand, but only loss of supination and ulnar deviation correlated with an unsatisfactory subjective result. The result was good or satisfactory in 33 of the 45 patients. We conclude that reconstructive procedures in patients with distal radius malunion may not completely restore normal function, and every effort should therefore be made to prevent malunion in the treatment of distal radius fractures.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Keywords: Key words Child/adolescent mental health ; Persistence of deviance ; Epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   Background: Earlier research has shown that psychiatric problems in children tend to persist over years. This investigation assessed the persistence of psychiatric deviance among children over a 7-year period from the age of 8 to the age of 15 years. We also explored the relationship between problems leading to special attention at the well-baby clinics before school age and future psychiatric deviance. Methods: The study material consisted of three questionnaires filled out by the parents, teachers and children themselves (N =  1268) at three time points, together with data concerning the children gathered from the records of well-baby clinics. Results: At the age of 15 years, girls scored higher than boys on the parental scale and on the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), while boys scored higher than girls on the teachers' scale. Parental ratings had a high correlation over 3 years and a moderate correlation over 7 years. Teachers' and children's ratings correlated moderately over 3 years, but did not correlate significantly over 7 years. The probability of being deviant at the age of 15 years was elevated if the child scored high on the parents' or teachers' scale at the age of 8 or 12 years, or on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) at the age of 12 years. Problems noted by health professionals (problems in growth, somatic diseases, emotional/behavioural problems of the child, psychosocial problems of the family) before school age were related to future deviance on the parental scale. Emotional/behavioural problems before school age elevated the probability of scoring high on the teachers' scale at the age of 15, and problems in psychomotor development elevated the probability of scoring high on the BDI. Conclusions: Psychiatric deviance is persistent over several years in children. Primary health care professionals can identify children who are at risk for future psychiatric problems.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis ; Surgery ; Wound Healing ; Wound Infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of a number of factors studied correlated with the incidence of postoperative infection in rheumatoid patients, which is regarded as high. Data relating to all early postoperative infections between 1975 and 1978, 136 cases in all, were analysed together with data relating to two control series, one matched for sex, age and operation type, the other randomly chosen. The infection rate overall was 1.7%. The type of antirheumatic medication used did not influence the incidence of infection. Unrelated post-operative infections in the past correlated with risk of infection. Highly significant differences in the incidence of infection between the various types of operation were demonstrated.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Multichannel neuromagnetic recordings were used to differentiate signals from the human first (SI) and second (SII) somatosensory cortices and to define representations of body surface in them. The responses from contralateral SI, peaking at 20 – 40 ms, arose mainly from area 3b, where representations of the leg, hand, fingers, lips and tongue agreed with earlier animal studies and with neurosurgical stimulations and recordings on convexial cortex in man. Representations of the five fingers were limited to a cortical strip of ∼2 cm in length. Responses from SII peaked 100 – 140 ms after contra- and ipsilateral stimuli and varied considerably from one subject to another. Signs of somatotopical organization were seen also in SII. Responses of SII were not fully recovered at interstimulus intervals of 8 s.
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