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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The principle of guided tissue regeneration has been successfully applied for the regeneration of bone in various jaw defects in human. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone volume regenerated using nonresorbable membrane barriers. Nineteen patients with jaw bone defects of various sizes and configurations were included in the study. Combined split-thickness/full-thickness mucosal flaps were elevated in the area of missing bone. The size of the defects was assessed by measuring the distance from a reference line between 2 adjacent teeth (cementoenamel junctions) to the alveolar crest (a) every 2 or 3 mm. In addition, the crestal width was measured. Consequently, the surface of the triangle formed by a and the width of the crest as well as the volume between all triangles were calculated geometrically. Following the placement of Gore-Tex® augmentation material as a barrier, the distance (b) to the top of the membrane from the reference line was assessed, and the maximum possible volume for bone regeneration based on (a-b) and the width of the crest was calculated. At the time of membrane removal (3–8 months later). the same measurements were performed and the percentages of regenerated bone in relation to the possible volume for regeneration determined. In 6 patients in whom the membranes had to be removed early due to an increased risk for infection between 3 and 5 months, bone regeneration varied between 0 and 60%. In 13 patients in whom membranes were left for 6–8 months, regenerated bone filled 90–100% of the possible volume. It was concluded that successful bone regeneration consistently occurred with an undisturbed healing period of at least 6 months.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An intimate contact between bone and titanium implants was first demonstrated in 1969. and since then the bone-implant interface of osseointegrated implants has been investigated extensively. However. investigations of the marginal tissues and the microflora associated with osseointegrated implants have almost exclusively been carried out over the last decade. This review covers the clinical, radiographic, histologic, and microbiologic studies of marginal tissues of osseointegrated oral implants. In general, successfully osseointegrated implants exhibit low amounts of plaque con-comitant with the absence of marginal inflammation. However, plaque accumulation may cause inflammatory reactions around the implants, sometimes giving rise to mucosal hyperplasia. Apparently, keratinized mucosa is not a requisite for the maintenance of peri-implant health if oral hygiene is adequate, but the presence of peri-implant keratinized mucosa is generally advocated. Alveolar bone loss around successful implants is minimal, but significant focal loss may occur due to plaque-induced inflammation or perhaps repeatedly extensive implant load. The progression of plaque-induced alveolar bone loss of osseointegrated implants may be different from that of teeth. It is unknown whether simultaneous marginal inflammation and excessive implant load further increase the loss of alveolar bone height. Both the light microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of marginal tissues of implants and teeth are similar except for a lack of root cementum with inserting gingival collagen fibers of implants. Clinical inflammatory reactions are histologically characterized by an increased number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the connective tissue. The scattered subgingival microbiota associated with osseointegrated implants surrounded by healthy or slightly inflamed marginal tissues is similar to that of teeth with healthy gingiva. The microbiota associated with implants affected by marginal inflammation and bone loss is complex and consists predominantly of gram-negative anaerobic rods: this. again, is a similarity to periodontal disease.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to test whether healing of extensive transosseous defects in the calvaria can successfully be achieved using guided bone regeneration. The results demonstrated complete osseous bridging of the skull defect in the test specimen. In the control specimen, fibrous connective tissue occupied the area of the skull defect.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the present study, the influence of initial instability on the healing of titanium implants was studied in 9 lop-eared rabbits. Titanium implants (Brånemark System®) were inserted in the tibiae, a location with cortical bone only, in such a way that they were either stable (control), rotation-mobile, or totally mobile. Implants were also inserted in the distal femoral condyles, representing an implantation bed with mainly cancellous bone, so they either showed no initial mobility (control) or were rotation-mobile. After 12 weeks of healing, the implants were retrieved, together with surrounding bone, fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in plastic resin. About 10 μm thick ground sections were prepared for light microscopic morphometry. The mineralized bone to titanium contact, and the amount of bone occupying the threads, were calculated, whereafter the outcome of the different locations were compared. All retrieved implants were clinically stable at the end of the experiment. For the tibia sites, a statistically significant less bone to titanium contact, and a less amount of bone in the threads, were found for the totally mobile implants, as compared to the corresponding initially stable controls. Moreover, a statistically significant higher amount of bone was found in the threads of the rotation-mobile implants inserted in the femoral condyle as compared to their initially stable controls. The study indicated that initial rotation-mobility. independent if it occurs in cortical or trabecular bone, does not necessarily lead to an inferior integration of unloaded implants. However, initial total implant mobility within the cortical layer results in a statistically significant less amount of lb one around the implants, as compared to stable controls.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to compare the peri-implant mucosal conditions 1 year after immediate transmucosal implant placement without or in combination with guided tissue regeneration with the situation after regular placement of transmucosal 1-stage procedure implants in partially edentulous patients. The test group consisted of 15 patients who required the immediate replacement of 20 teeth with oral implants in combination with guided tissue regeneration. The control group 1 consisted of 6 patients who received 8 immediate implants, without concomitant bone regeneration procedure due to the small size of the extracted roots in comparison to the diameter of the implants. The 20 patients of the control group 2 were randomly chosen from over 150 partially edentulous patients who received implants of the ITI® Dental Implant System according to the standard procedure. Similar favorable clinical parameters were found around the implants of all the 3 groups with low plaque and mucosal indices, similar amounts of recession, pocket probing depths and clinical attachment levels. The immediate implants demonstrated lower frequencies of sites bleeding on probing. The study has established that immediate oral implants are a feasible treatment modality with high predictability.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present study was to determine the tactile pressure thresholds perceived with dental implants during a three-month healing phase following implant placement (osseointegration phase). The absolute threshold of tactile perception was measured in a group of patients 1 week, 1.2 and 3 months following implant placement (ITI Dental Implant System, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland). Contralateral and neighbouring teeth were measured at the same time. For determination of the axial forces exerted on the implants and teeth, an electronic device with semi-conductor strain gauges was used (Hämmerle et al. 1995). The results demonstrated mean thresholds of tactile perception for the implants of 160.2g (SD 61.7 g, range 77–283g) at 1 week, 133.4g (SD 5 1.9g, range 32–239g) at 1 month, 147.9g (SD 53.5g. range 70–257g) at 2 months, and 146.9g (SD 57.4g, range 77–248g) at 3 months. Statistical analysis using Student's paired t-test revealed no significant differences between the values over time. The control teeth exhibited mean values for tactile perception of 13.1g (SD 9.6g, range 5–47g) at 1 week, 10.2g (SD 6.4g, range 4–29g) at 1 month, 14.8g (SD 15.9g, range 2–58g) at 2 months, and 15.4g (SD 12.2g, range 3–36g) at 3 months. Again, these values did not differ significantly from each other and indicated the absence of systemic alterations in perceived pressure threshold over the observation period. The mean perceived pressure threshold was more than 10 times higher for implants than for natural teeth (P〈0.001) at all observation times. It is concluded that the absolute threshold of tactile perception with dental implants during the phase of osseointegration is not affected by bone and soft tissue healing taking place during the time period.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present experiment was to test a novel model system, designed to obtain human specimens of regenerated and also newly generated jaw bone, for the study of the biological events under a variety of conditions. Following information and disclosure of possible risks associated with a minor oral surgical procedure, 9 systemically healthy subjects (5 men, 4 women, mean age 31.7 years) signed consent forms and volunteered to participate in this study. Hollow test cylinders with an outer diameter of 3.5mm, an inner diameter of 2.5mm, and 4mm in height were used. They were manufactured from commercially pure titanium and exhibited a highly polished inner surface and a titanium plasma sprayed outer rough surface. A mucoperiosteal flap was raised in the retromolar area of the mandible corresponding to standard retained third molar surgery. Following flap reflection a standardized hole was drilled through the cortical bone into the bone marrow using round burs. The congruent test cylinders were firmly placed into the prepared bony bed yielding primary stability. One-and-a-half to 2mm of the test device were submerged below the level of the surrounding bone, while the remainder surpassed the level of the bone surface. The bone-facing end of the cylinder was left open, while the coronal soft tissue facing end was closed by an ePTFE-membrane. The flap was sutured to obtain primary wound closure. In order to prevent infection, penicillin was prescribed systemically and oral rinses of chlorhexidine were administered. After 2, 7, and 12 weeks one test device including the regenerated tissue was surgically harvested, while after 16, 24 and 36 weeks respectively, 2 devices were harvested and processed for soft or hard tissue histology or histochemistry. The two surgical procedures and the presence of the test cylinders during the time of healing were well tolerated by the volunteers. In all 9 subjects generated tissue could successfully be harvested. The tissue generated after 2 and 7 weeks presented with a cylindrical shape, whereas the specimens harvested at 12 weeks and thereafter resembled the form of an hourglass. Specimens of 12 weeks and less regeneration time were almost entirely comprised of soft tissue, while specimens with regeneration time of 4 months and more were composed of both soft and increasing amounts of mineralized tissue. It is concluded that the presented model system is suitable to study temporal dynamics and tissue physiology of bone re-generation in humans with minimal risk for complications or adverse effects to the volunteers.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to determine the threshold of tactile perception of endosseous dental implants and to assess the relative difference of that threshold between implants and teeth. Twenty-two subjects with implants of the ITI® Dental Implant System were included in the study. All implants served as abutments for single tooth crowns and had been in function for a minimum of 1 year. A strain gauge glued to the shaft of an amalgam plugger served as a force sensor. It transformed the elastic deformation exerted onto the shaft into an electronic signal for recording. By use of the amalgam plugger, a continuously increasing force was exercised on the implants or teeth until the first sensation of touch was indicated by the patient. Statistical analysis revealed threshold values for the implants ranging from 13.2 to 189.4g (1g=0.0lN)(mean 100.6; SD 47.7), while a range of 1.2 to 26.2g (mean 11.5; SD 11.5) was found for control teeth. Thus, the mean threshold values for implants were 8.75 times higher than for teeth. This difference was highly statistically significant. A general linear models procedure was applied to determine the influence of patient age, jaw, implant position and the threshold values of teeth on the measurements obtained for implants. Only gender and the threshold values for contralateral teeth had a significant influence. These 2 parameters together explained 27% of the variability in threshold measurements. It is concluded that a more than 8-fold higher threshold value for tactile perception exists for implants compared with teeth.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The installation of implants directly into extraction sockets offers considerable advantages over other treatment modalities for both practitioners and patients. Usually, immediate implants are placed and subsequently covered by mucosa allowing a submerged healing mode. This report presents the rationale, clinical procedures and results for immediate transmucosal implants. Following an intracrevicular incision and flap elevation, the tooth to be extracted is carefully luxated by means of small elevators to preserve the entire bony housing of the tooth. A titanium plasma-sprayed implant (ITI Bonefit®) is then installed at the bottom or in the wall of the extraction socket. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene barrier membrane (Gore-Tex GTAM®) is tightly adapted around the implant post and over the bony margins of the alveolus. The flaps are then replaced, adapted around the neck of the implant and sutured. During nonsubmerged, transmucosal healing of the site, meticulous plaque control is performed by mechanical and chemical means. Membranes are removed after 5–7 months. Since infection was prevented, the implants obtained stability, healthy peri-implant mucosal tissues were observed and missing bone in the alveoli regenerated. Of 21 transmucosal implants placed into fresh extraction sockets, 20 yielded complete bone fill and coverage of the entire plasma-coated implants surface at the time of membrane removal. This documentation suggests that the immediate nonsubmerged installation of an implant into an extraction socket is a predictable treatment modality with good long-term prognosis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present case report demonstrates the application of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) in combination with antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of an early implant failure. This treatment approach both prevented further loss of bone as well as led to the regeneration of lost bone. By means of color-converted digital subtraction images, remodelling of the tissues adjacent to the defect was documented as early as one month postsurgically. The images demonstrated “bone-fill” in the apical portion of the defect and resorptive changes at the bone crest. This case report demonstrates that combined regenerative and antimicrobial therapy may be a successful treatment approach restoring osseointegration of dental implants following loss of bone due to infection. Continuously increasing bone-fill inside the defect was documented when comparing the radiograph obtained immediately before the GTR procedure and at months 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 of the healing period, respectively. Clinical measurement obtained at the time of the surgery and at the time of the membrane removal confirmed the radiographic evidence of bone-fill by demonstrating new tissue resistant to probing in close contact to the implant surface at the site of the previous defect. Antimicrobial therapy included an antibiotic regimen during the 1st month of healing as well as topical rinses with an antiseptic (chlorhexidine) over the entire healing period of 6 months. As a result of this treatment approach, the implant was saved and could be used as an abutment for a bridge reconstruction.
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