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  • 1
    Unknown
    München : Urban & Fischer
    Call number: 04-His:124 ; 04-His:124a
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry / methods ; Laboratory Techniques and Procedures
    Pages: xi, 132 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 3437455265
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    04-His:124 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    04-His:124a departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 15-μm-thick paraffin sections from prostatic carcinomas using a chromosome 7-specific α-satellite DNA probe. A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was used for optical sectioning of the thick sections and reconstruction of 3D images. The number of FISH signals was determined by a gallery of optical sections evaluating only complete nuclei. To investiate the influence of section thickness and truncation and nuclei on scoring results, we compared the FISH data from 15-μm sections with signal counts obtained from 5-μm sections. The latter were evaluated by conventional fluorescence microscopy in the same tumor regions previously defined and marked on the slides. After statistical analysis of spot frequencies in tumor and non-tumorous cells (χ2 test), we transferred the signal frequencies into a cytogenetic classification (−7, +7, polysomy 7). Based on this classification, most cases showed more than one chromosome 7 aberration type. Trisomy 7 (+7) became apparent in 15-μm-thick sections in all 19 tumors, polysomy 7 (〉3 spots) in 18/19 cases, and monosomy 7 (−7) in 13/19 cases. In 5-μm sections, however, trisomy 7 and polysomy 7 were found in only 7/19 and 13/19 cases, respectively, and monosomy 7 in 7/19 cases. When comparing the classification results of tumor cells of the same tumor regions originating either from 5-μm or 15-μm sections, the following discrepancies were noted: in 15-μm sections exclusively, in 12/19 tumors, trisomy 7 was found; in 6/19 cases, polysomy 7; in 8/19 cases, monosomy 7. The high proportion of cases with tumor nuclei expressing only one hybridization signal of chromosome 7 in 15-μm sections could be confirmed as monosomy 7 in five selected cases by double-hybridization using centromere-specific probes for chromosomes 7 and 12. These results demonstrate that numerical chromosome 7 aberrations are more frequently observed in thick (15-μm) paraffin-embedded tissue sections by evaluating only complete nuclei. The use of routine sections (5-μm) for interphase cytogenetic analyses is compromised by a remarkable underestimation of the real chromosome copy numbers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The amplification of target nucleic acids before hybridization is one of the most powerful approaches for the detection of low copy number RNA and DNA. The best known amplification reaction is PCR which has many applications. However, certain drawbacks of the PCR reaction provide a role for alternative amplification methods. One of these methods is the self-sustained sequence replication (3SR) reaction, which is an isothermal method for RNA amplification depending on the action of three enzymes. 3SR has been used in several in vitro applications and has also been modified for in situ use (IS-3SR). We have studied IS-3SR with the measles virus as a model and have found that it can significantly amplify the amount of intracellular RNA. Such a level of amplification could raise the amount of single copy RNA to the level of detection by conventional in situ hybridization. Although careful controls to insure its specificity must be carried out, IS-3SR has several advantages, including ease of use, preserved cell morphology, and specificity for RNA amplification, which make it an attractive alternative to the in situ PCR method.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Individual cells are prepared from histological tissue sections of routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues using an ultraviolet laser micromanipulator. This technology, in combination with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gene analysis, will enable researchers to routinely detect a variety of nucleic acid abnormalities underlying cancer, infection, and genetic disease with previously unknown sensitivity: at the single cell level. The utility of this technique is demonstrated by PCR amplification and sequencing of the E-cadherin gene, which codes for a homophilic cell-to-cell adhesion molecule, in early gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type of Lauren’s classification. The main characteristics of the laser-assisted microdissection technique are high precision without contamination and easy application. The assignment of individual gene sequences to single cells will now provide a direct link between molecular biology on the one hand and histology and pathology on the other.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 106 (1996), S. 241-245 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Feulgen-stained imprints and smears from 730 cases of invasive breast cancer were investigated using an image analysis system. From each tumor sample 100 cells were randomly scanned and several DNA and morphometrical parameters evaluated. Their prognostic value for a prediction of distant metastases within 5 years was investigated with the multivariate Cox regression analysis, which was performed for all consecutive cases, as well as for node-negative and node-positive patients separately. The multivariate analyses showed a strong prognostic value of the anisonucleosis (variation of nuclear radius) and the DNA histogram type in addition to the nodal status, the tumor size (pT), and the histological tumor grade. However, performing this analysis for both node-positive patients and for those without lymph node metastases demonstrated a different prognostic meaning of the variables. The combination of each of the group-specific variables led to a prognostic factor, which allowed an assignment of patients to several subgroups with significantly different risk for distant metastases. Thus, both a low-risk group of node-negative patients with a 5-year distant recurrence rate of only 5.8%, and a higher risk group of node-negative patients with a recurrence rate of 38.6% could be identified. Among the node-positive patients, a low-risk group with a distant recurrence rate of 8.6%, and also a high risk group with 69% distant recurrence, could be identified.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Loss of function of both copies of the RB1 gene is a causal event in the development of retinoblastoma. The predisposition to this tumor can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Direct detection of the genetic defect is important for presymptomatic DNA diagnosis and genetic counseling in families with hereditary retinoblastoma. We have used multiplex polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect RB1 gene deletions as small as one base pair. By using three independent sets of amplification reactions, which cover 26% of the RB1 gene coding region, we identified RB1 gene deletions in the DNA of peripheral blood cells in 3 out of 24 (12.5%) unrelated patients with hereditary retinoblastoma. In one case, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor material was also used to detect the mutation. Sequencing of the mutated alleles revealed deletions of 1, 3 and 10 base pairs. Each deleted region was flanked by direct repeats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome predisposing to retinal, cerebellar and spinal hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), pheochromocytoma and pancreatic tumors. Clinically two types of the disease can be distinguished: VHL type 1 (without pheochromocytoma) and VHL type 2 (with pheochromocytoma). We report VHL germline mutations and trends in phenotypic variation in families from central Europe. We identified 28 mutations in 53/65 (81.5%) families with 18 (64%) mutations being unique to this population. Whereas types and distribution of mutations as well as a strong correlation of missense mutations with the VHL 2 phenotype were similar to those identified in other populations, these families have provided new insights into the molecular basis for variability in the VHL 2 phenotype. Seven different missense mutations in exons 1 and 3 varied in their biological consequences from a minimal VHL 2 phenotype with pheochromocytoma only to a full VHL 2 phenotype with RCC and pancreatic lesion. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of VHL disease and its phenotypic variability. Further, we have provided rapid VHL screening for the families in central Europe, which has resulted in improved diagnosis and clinical management.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 99 (1993), S. 103-104 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We identified a germline missense mutation at nucleotide 505 (T to C) of the VHL tumor suppressor gene in 14, apparently unrelated, VHL type 2A families from the Black Forest region of Germany. This mutation was previously identified in two VHL 2A families living in Pennsylvania (USA). All affected individuals in the 16 families shared the same VHL haplotype indicating a founder effect. This missense mutation at codon 169 (Tyr to His) would probably cause an alteration in the structure of the putative VHL protein. The association of this distinct mutation with the pheochromocytoma phenotype in VHL may help to elucidate the genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis in this multi tumor cancer syndrome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Comparative genomic hybridization ; Laser-assisted microdissection ; DOP-PCR ; Prostatic carcinoma ; Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We combined laser-assisted microdissection from H&E-stained paraffin sections, degenerated oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to analyse chromosomal imbalances in small tumour areas consisting of 50–100 cells. This approach was used to investigate intratumour genetic heterogeneity in a case of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma and chromosomal changes in areas of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) adjacent to the invasive tumour. In four microdissected invasive tumour areas with different histological patterns (acinar, cribriform, papillary and solid) marked intratumour heterogeneity was found by CGH. Recurrent chromosomal imbalances detected in at least two microdissected tumour areas were gains on 1p32→p36, 2p22, 3q21, 7, 8q21→q24, 11q12→q13, 16p12→p13, 17, 19 and loss on 16q23. Additional chromosomal changes were found in only one of the microdissected areas (gains on 16q21→q23, 20q22 and losses on 8p21→p23, 12p11→q12, 12q21→q26, 13q21→q34, 16q12, and 18q22). In PIN, gains on chromosomes 8q21→q24 and 17 were found in both samples investigated (low and high grade PIN), while gains on chromosomes 7, 11q, 12q, 16p, and 20q and losses on 2p, 8p21→p23, 12q were found only in one PIN area. Controls to ensure reliable CGH results consisted in CGH analyses of (i) approximately 80 microdissected normal epithelial cells, which showed no aberrations after DOP-PCR and (ii) larger cell numbers (approximately 105 or 107 cells) of the primary tumour investigated without DOP-PCR and partially displaying the chromosomal imbalances (gain on 16p12→p13, losses on 2p25, 8p21→p23, 12p11→p12, 12q21→q26, 18q22) found in the small microdissected areas. Microsatellite and FISH analyses further confirmed our CGH results from microdissected cells. The combined approach of laser-assisted microdissection, DOP-PCR and CGH is suitable to identify early genetic changes in PIN and chromosomal imbalances associated with the particular histological patterns of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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