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  • 1
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: (Barley) ; 16 kDa polypeptide ; Photosystem I ; Transit peptide ; cDNA sequence
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Monoclonal antibody ; Plasminogen activation ; U937 cell ; Urokinase receptor
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; ELISA ; invasion ; plasminogen activator ; urokinase receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a proteolytic enzyme involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix during cancer invasion. The levels of uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 in tumor extracts have previously been demonstrated to be of prognostic value in breast cancer as well as other types of cancer. We have previously characterized a specific cell surface receptor for uPA (uPAR) which strongly enhances the catalytic activity of uPA and is expressed during mammary cancer invasion. In order to quantitate uPAR in breast cancer tissue, we have now developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with polyclonal catching antibodies and three monoclonal detecting antibodies. The detection limit of the assay is approximately 0.16 fmol of uPAR in a volume of 100 µl (1.6 pM). There is a linear relationship between signal and uPAR concentration up to at least 6.6 fmol per 100 µl (66 pM). Both free uPAR and uPAR in complex with uPA is detected. The recovery of an internal uPAR standard in breast cancer tissue extracts is above 87%. The intra-assay and inter-assay variation coefficients are 7% and 13%. In order to find a suitable buffer for extraction of various components of the uPA-system from breast cancer tissue, we tested buffers which previously have been used for optimal extraction of estrogen receptor (A), uPA (B), and uPAR (C). Buffer A and B extracted approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, of the amount of uPAR extracted with buffer C. Extracts of samples of breast cancer tissue from 94 patients all contained uPAR in amounts above the detection limit of the present assay, which appears suitable for studies of the potential prognostic value of uPAR in this disease. Significant correlations were found between uPAR, uPA and PAI-1 tumor levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 is a highly conserved molecule, which binds both active and latent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. TIMP-2 is also involved in the activation of MMP-2 on the cell surface. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established and optimized for measurement of TIMP-2 in plasma. The capturing antibody in the ELISA was a monoclonal, while the detecting antibody was a chicken polyclonal antibody recognizing the native form of human TIMP-2. The levels of TIMP-2 were measured in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate plasma from healthy donors. The median values were determined as 163 ng/ml (n = 186) with a range of 109–253 ng/ml for EDTA plasma and 139 ng/ml (n = 77) with a range of 95–223 ng/ml for citrate plasma. The TIMP-2 concentration in citrate plasma from 15 patients with advanced, stage IV breast cancer had a median value of 160 ng/ml, only slightly higher but statistically distinguishable from the level found in citrate plasma from the healthy donors. In addition, the TIMP-2 concentration in EDTA plasma from colorectal cancer patients revealed a significantly higher level in plasma from patients with Dukes stage A (P = 0.01) compared with patients with more advanced Dukes stages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Paraffin-wax embedded specimens from 30 cases of colonic adenocarcinoma were investigated for immunoreactivity for the receptor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR). In all cases there was a strong signal, predominantly at the invasive foci. The positive cells were mainly tumour-infiltrating macrophages but neutrophils and eosinophils were also strongly stained. The neoplastic cells were positive in 19 of the samples with staining of occasional or a moderate number of cells. In uninvolved, normal-appearing mucosa adjacent to the malignant infiltrates, immunostaining of both macrophages and neutrophils was seen, but the labelling was less intense than that seen in the malignant lesions. Weak to moderate staining of normal intestinal epithelium was also seen at the luminal surface. Comparison between immunoreactivity and in situ hybridization showed a similar distribution of protein and mRNA with two exceptions: first, neutrophils (strongly immunoreactive for uPAR) were negative or only weakly positive for uPAR mRNA; and second, many cancer cells at invasive foci showed prominent hybridization signals but no detectable uPAR immunoreactivity. Together with previous findings of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) protein and mRNA being expressed in tumour-infiltrating fibroblast-Iike cells at the invasive foci, these results support the view that the uPA pathway of plasminogen activation is involved in tissue degradation in colon cancer. The results also extend and consolidate an emerging picture of non-neoplastic tumour stromal cells producing molecules involved in the generation and regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Leucocyte expression of the urokinase receptor [urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)] is regulated by inflammatory mediators. This study investigated the in vivo effect of endotoxin, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α on uPAR-release in vivo and in vitro in humans. Healthy subjects received intravenous endotoxin injection [high-dose, 2 ng/kg (n = 8) and low-dose, 0.06 ng/kg (n = 7)], coadministration of 0.06 ng/kg endotoxin and 3 h recombinant human (rh)IL-6 infusion (n = 7) or 3 h infusion of rhIL-6 (n = 6), rhTNF-α (n = 6) or NaCl (n = 5). Soluble uPAR (suPAR) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma and supernatants from unstimulated and phytohaemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures incubated for 24 h. The spontaneous and stimulated uPAR-release from PBMC cultures was enhanced 5 h after low-dose endotoxin (both P 〈 0.05), but coadministration of rhIL-6 during low-dose endotoxaemia abolished this enhanced uPAR release. High-dose endotoxin increased plasma suPAR levels (P 〈 0.001) whereas low-dose endotoxin, rhIL-6 or TNF-α did not influence uPAR release in vivo to such degree that a systemic effect on the plasma suPAR level was detectable. Even subclinical doses of endotoxin in vivo enhance the capacity of PBMC to release uPAR after incubation in vitro. The inhibitory effect of IL-6 on endotoxin-mediated uPAR-release in vitro suggests that IL-6 has anti-inflammatory effects on endotoxin-mediated inflammation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The blood levels of the soluble forms of the urokinase receptor (suPAR) are increased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients. This study investigated whether the release of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in whole-blood cultures was affected by HIV infection. The release of different uPAR forms in whole-blood cultures incubated 24 h with or without phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide was analysed in 47 HIV patients and 19 controls. suPAR was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (bulk-suPAR) and three different time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays measuring three-domain suPAR [suPAR(I–III)], three- and two-domain suPAR [suPAR(I–III) + suPAR(II–III)] and one-domain suPAR [suPAR(I)]. The uPAR release was correlated to leucocyte subpopulations and plasma levels of suPAR. The stimulated net whole-blood culture release of bulk-uPAR, uPAR(I–III), uPAR(II–III) and uPAR(I) was reduced in HIV patients (all P 〈 0.01), whereas the spontaneous bulk-uPAR and uPAR(I–III) release was increased in HIV patients (both P 〈 0.05). The stimulated uPAR release in whole-blood cultures correlated well to leucocytes and circulating suPAR levels in controls, whereas the correlation was weaker to leucocytes and nonexisting to circulating suPAR levels in HIV patients. These findings demonstrate that HIV infection affects stimulated and spontaneous uPAR release in whole-blood cultures. Given that high blood levels of suPAR in HIV patients are linked to immune activation, the perturbations in uPAR release in whole-blood cultures from HIV patients may also reflect immune activation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored cell surface glycoprotein that plays a central role in extracellular proteolysis during tissue remodeling processes including cancer invasion. Furthermore, uPAR is found on the surface of both dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, and has been proposed to play a role in DC-induced T-cell activation and, therefore, in the induction of an immune response. In order to investigate the possibility of using DNA immunization for the generation of poly- and monoclonal antibodies to uPAR, we injected wild-type mice and mice deficient in uPAR (uPAR knockouts) intramuscularly with plasmid DNA encoding a carboxy-terminal truncated soluble form of the human uPAR. Multiple injections of 100 µg of DNA resulted in a strong and specific antibody response in all mice irrespective of genotype. Antisera with a maximum titre of 32,000 were obtained, comparable with that obtained after immunization with recombinant uPAR. The subclass distribution of uPAR-specific antibodies in the sera demonstrated the induction of a mixed TH1/TH2 response, irrespective of the genotype of the mice. Our results demonstrate the possibility of generating high titre antibodies to uPAR by DNA immunization of wild-type as well as uPAR knockout mice, and that cell surface uPAR is not indispensable for the generation of a humoral immune response.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Hordeum (mutant) ; Immunoprecipitation (thylakoid protein) ; Light-harvesting protein ; Monoclonal antibody (cross-reactivity) ; Mutant (barley) ; Thylakoid protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Monoclonal antibodies have been raised against the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of photosystem I (LHCI) using a photosystem (PS) I preparation (PSI-200) wild-type from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Svaløf's Bonus) as the antigen. These antibodies cross-reacted with a minor light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein of PSII (Chla/b-P1=CP29), but not with the major one, LHCII (=Chla/b-P2**). Similarly, a monoclonal antibody to Chla/b-P1, elicited by a PSII preparation as the antigen, cross-reacted with LHCI, but not LHCII. This explains why an antigen consisting of LHCII, free of LHCI, but contaminated with Chla/b-P1, can elicit antibodies which cross-react with LHCI. Immunoblot assays showed that LHCI and Chla/b-P1 have at least two epitopes in common. Immunogold labelling of thin-sectioned wild-type thylakoids confirmed a preferential localisation of Chla/b-P1 in grana partition membranes and LHCI in stroma lamellae. The presence of LHCI was demonstrated in barley mutants lacking the PSI reaction centre (viridis-zb 63) and chlorophyll b (chlorina-f2), and was correlated with the presence of long-wavelength (730 nm) fluorescence emission at 77 K. The mutant viridis-k 23, which has a 77 K long-wavelength fluorescence peak at 720 nm, was shown by immune-blot assay to lack LHCI, although Chla/b-P1 was present.
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