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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Interleukin-6 ; Interleukin-1β ; Tenidap ; Astrocytes ; Alzheimer’s disease ; Therapy ; Cell culture ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Tenidap is a structurally novel antirheumatic agent with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Previous studies have shown that tenidap is able to inhibit the production and action of cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α. However, the mechanisms by which tenidap inhibits cytokine synthesis are not yet known. We investigated in the human astrocytoma cell line U373 whether tenidap inhibits IL-6 synthesis by inhibition of certain signal transduction processes leading to IL-6 synthesis. Cells were stimulated with different substances which have previously been shown to activate protein kinase A or C, reactive oxygen intermediates as well as transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B and AP-1 and which all result in IL-6 synthesis. Tenidap was a very potent inhibitor of IL-6 synthesis independent of the stimuli used, suggesting an inhibitory mechanism other than inhibition of a certain signal transduction pathway. Since IL-6 has been shown to be involved in the etiopathology of Alzheimer’s disease and since the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appears to be of therapeutical benefit, it is concluded that tenidap should be tested in clinical trials in order to determine whether it may be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Senile plaques ; Primitive plaques ; Alzheimer's disease ; Interleukin-6 ; Pathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Interleukin-6 (IL-6) immunoreactivity has previously been shown in plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elevated IL-6 concentrations have been measured biochemically in brains of AD patients. In this study, we investigated the appearance of IL-6 immunoreactivity in AD plaques according to the stage of plaque formation. Using the Bielschowsky silver-staining method, we were able to differentiate between four types of plaques described earlier: diffuse, primitive, classic and compact. While diffuse plaques represent the early stage of plaque formation, primitive and classic plaques are thought to represent later stages of plaque development. We investigated serial sections of paraffin-embedded cortices of ten clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed AD patients and ten patients with no clinical history of dementia. We found plaques in the brains of both nondemented and demented persons using the silver staining method or immunohistochemistry with antibodies against the amyloid precursor protein. In the group of clinically nondemented persons, diffuse plaques were the predominant plaque type, whereas primitive plaques formed the larger portion of lesions in the group of AD brains. IL-6 could not be detected in plaques of patients without dementia. Many IL-6-positive plaques were found in six of the AD brains and to a smaller extent in the other four AD cases. In the six cases with a large number of IL-6-positive plaques, IL-6 was found in a significantly higher ratio of diffuse plaques than expected from a random distribution of IL-6 in all plaque types. We conclude from these findings that IL-6 immunoreactivity correlates with clinical dementia and that in AD patients, an IL-6-related immunological event may contribute to plaque formation. IL-6 might be involved both in the transformation from diffuse to primitive plaques in AD as well as in the development of dementia.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Key words Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease ; Presenilin-1 ; Chromosome-14 ; Myocloni
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mutations in the presenilin-1 gene (PS-1 gene) on chromosome 14 have recently been identified as a cause of familial early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD). To our knowledge, only two German EOAD patients with mutations in the PS-1 gene have been identified thus far. Herein we report the case of a German EOAD patient with a family history of dementia and a missense mutation at codon 139 (M139V) of the PS-1 gene. The patient came to our clinic for the first time when he was 44 years old. During the following 7 years, his Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score dropped from 24 to 0. Myocloni were an early neurological symptom that was already present during the first consultation. We could demonstrate that myoclonic activity was of cortical origin using a back-averaging method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed only slight changes in the early stage of the disease. Follow-up MRI studies showed progression of bitemporal ventricular enlargement and progressive frontal and temporal cortical atrophy. Although the majority of EOAD patients belong to the sporadic (non-genetic) type of AD, early-onset dementia, early myocloni and a familial history of AD should direct attention to the possibility of a genetic form of AD.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Senile plaques ; Primitive plaques ; Alzheimer's disease ; Interleukin-6 ; Pathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Interleukin-6 (IL-6) immunoreactivity has previously been shown in plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elevated IL-6 concentrations have been measured biochemically in brains of AD patients. In this study, we investigated the appearance of IL-6 immunoreactivity in AD plaques according to the stage of plaque formation. Using the Bielschowsky silver-staining method, we were able to differentiate between four types of plaques described earlier: diffuse, primitive, classic and compact. While diffuse plaques represent the early stage of plaque formation, primitive and classic plaques are thought to represent later stages of plaque development. We investigated serial sections of paraffin-embedded cortices of ten clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed AD patients and ten patients with no clinical history of dementia. We found plaques in the brains of both nondemented and demented persons using the silver staining method or immunohistochemistry with antibodies against the amyloid precursor protein. In the group of clinically nondemented persons, diffuse plaques were the predominant plaque type, whereas primitive plaques formed the larger portion of lesions in the group of AD brains. IL-6 could not be detected in plaques of patients without dementia. Many IL-6-positive plaques were found in six of the AD brains and to a smaller extent in the other four AD cases. In the six cases with a large number of IL-6-positive plaques, IL-6 was found in a significantly higher ratio of diffuse plaques than expected from a random distribution of IL-6 in all plaque types. We conclude from these findings that IL-6 immunoreactivity correlates with clinical dementia and that in AD patients, an IL-6-related immunological event may contribute to plaque formation. IL-6 might be involved both in the transformation from diffuse to primitive plaques in AD as well as in the development of dementia.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Trichloroethylene, a common industrial solvent and a metabolic precursor of chloral hydrate, occurs widely in the environment. Chloral hydrate, which is also used as a hypnotic, has been found to condense spontaneously with tryptamine, in vivo, to give rise to a highly unpolar 1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline (TaClo) that has a structural analogy to the dopaminergic neurotoxin N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Earlier studies have revealed the relative permeability of the molecule through the blood–brain barrier and its ability to induce Parkinson-like symptoms in rats. In this study, we report that TaClo induces an apoptotic pathway in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, involving the translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytosol and activation of caspase 3. TaClo-induced apoptosis shows considerable differences from that mediated by other Parkinson-inducing agents such as MPTP, rotenone and manganese. Although it is not clear if the clinically administered dosage of chloral hydrate or the relatively high environmental levels of trichloroethylene could lead to an onset of Parkinson's disease, the spontaneous in vivo formation of TaClo and its pro-apoptotic properties, as shown in this report, should be considered.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Prostaglandins (PGs), which are generated by the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2, modulate several functions in the CNS such as the generation of fever, the sleep/wake cycle, and the perception of pain. Moreover, the neuronal induction of COX-2 has been linked to neuroinflammatory aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regulation of COX expression in neuronal cells is only partly understood and has been mainly linked to synaptic activity. In pathophysiological situations, however, cytokines may be potent stimulators of neuronal COX expression. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-1β induces COX-2 mRNA and protein synthesis and the release of PGE2 in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. We further demonstrate that both a free radical scavenger and an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) reduce IL-1β-induced synthesis of COX-2. IL-1β induces p38 MAPK phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear factor-κB independently from each other. Our data suggest that IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression in SK-N-SH cells is regulated by different mechanisms, presumably involving mRNA transcription and mRNA stability. The ability of p38 MAPK to augment COX-2 expression in human neuroblastoma cells, as shown here, suggests that p38 MAPK may be involved in neuronal expression of COX-2 in AD.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) have all been suggested to propagate neuropathology in different brain disorders such as HIV-dementia, prion diseases, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. In this report, we show that PGE2-stimulated IL-6 release in U373 MG human astroglioma cells and primary rat astrocytes. PGE2-induced intracellular cAMP formation was mediated via prostaglandin E receptor 2 (EP2), but inhibition of cAMP formation and protein kinase A or blockade of EP1/EP2 receptors did not affect PGE2-induced IL-6 synthesis. This indicates that the cAMP pathway is not part of PGE2-induced signal transduction cascade leading to IL-6 release. The EP3/EP1-receptor agonist sulprostone failed to induce IL-6 release, suggesting an involvement of EP4-like receptors. PGE2-activated p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK) and protein kinase C (PKC). PGE2-induced IL-6 synthesis was inhibited by specific inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB202190) and PKC (GF203190X). Although, up to now, EP receptors have only rarely been linked to p38 MAPK or PKC activation, these results suggest that PGE2 induces IL-6 via an EP4-like receptor by the activation of PKC and p38 MAPK via an EP4-like receptor independently of cAMP.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Prostaglandins (PGs) and cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), have been implicated in the etiopathology of various inflammatory and degenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion diseases. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), potent inhibitors of PG synthesis, appear to be beneficial in the treatment of AD. To assess whether PGs are able to induce IL-6 synthesis in cells of the CNS, IL-6 mRNA and protein syntheses were measured in a human astrocytoma cell line after stimulation with different PGs. PGE1 and PGE2, but not PGD2 and PGF2α, led to a rapid and transient induction of IL-6 mRNA, followed by IL-6 protein synthesis. Furthermore, PGE2 potentiated IL-1β-induced IL-6 mRNA synthesis. These results are discussed with respect to the participation of PGs in neurodegenerative diseases (and its inhibition by NSAIDs) by affecting cytokine expression.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been suggested to protect cerebral tissue in a variety of pathophysiological situations such as head trauma, ischemia or Alzheimer's disease. Most of these protective actions have been attributed to the antioxidative capacity of ascorbic acid. Besides the presence of elevated levels of oxygen radicals, prostaglandins produced by neurones and microglial cells seem to play an important role in prolonged tissue damage. We investigated whether ascorbic acid alone inhibits prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and may augment the inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on prostaglandin synthesis. Ascorbic acid dose-dependently inhibited PGE2 synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-treated primary rat microglial cells (IC50 = 3.70 µm). In combination with acetylsalicylic acid (IC50 = 1.85 µm), ascorbic acid augmented the inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on PGE2 synthesis (IC50 = 0.25 µm in combination with 100 µm ascorbic acid). Ascorbic acid alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid did not inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein synthesis but inhibited COX-2 enzyme activity. Our results show that ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid act synergistically in inhibiting PGE2 synthesis, which may help to explain a possible protective effect of ascorbic acid in various brain diseases.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a widely distributed neurotransmitter which is involved in neuroimmunomodulatory processes. Previously, it has been demonstrated that 5-HT may induce interleukin (IL)-6 expression in primary rat hippocampal astrocytes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular pathways underlying this induction of IL-6 synthesis. As a model system, we used the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG, which synthesizes IL-6 upon stimulation with various inducers. 5-HT dose- and time-dependently induced IL-6 protein synthesis. We identified several 5-HT receptors to be expressed on U373 MG cells, including the 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptors. In this report, we show that the 5-HT-induced IL-6 release is mediated by the 5-HT7 receptor based on several agonist/antagonists that were used. 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis is inhibited by the partially selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, pimozide, and the selective antagonist SB269970. Furthermore, IL-6 synthesis was induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist carboxamidotryptamin. In addition, we found p38 MAPKs and protein kinase C (PKC) ɛ to be involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis as specific inhibitors of these enzymes (SB202190 and RO-31-8425, respectively) blocked 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. Furthermore, 5-HT mediated the phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK as well as the PKC ɛ isoform. The p42/44 MAPKs, however, were not involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. This study shows, for the first time, a central role of 5-HT7 receptor linked to p38 MAPK and PKC ɛ for the induction of cytokine synthesis in astrocytic cells.
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