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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells require MTH1 activity to avoid incorporation of oxidized dNTPs, resulting in DNA damage and cell death. We validate MTH1 as an anticancer target in vivo and describe small molecules TH287 and TH588 as first-in-class nudix hydrolase family inhibitors that potently and selectively engage and inhibit the MTH1 protein in cells. Protein co-crystal structures demonstrate that the inhibitors bind in the active site of MTH1. The inhibitors cause incorporation of oxidized dNTPs in cancer cells, leading to DNA damage, cytotoxicity and therapeutic responses in patient-derived mouse xenografts. This study exemplifies the non-oncogene addiction concept for anticancer treatment and validates MTH1 as being cancer phenotypic lethal.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gad, Helge -- Koolmeister, Tobias -- Jemth, Ann-Sofie -- Eshtad, Saeed -- Jacques, Sylvain A -- Strom, Cecilia E -- Svensson, Linda M -- Schultz, Niklas -- Lundback, Thomas -- Einarsdottir, Berglind Osk -- Saleh, Aljona -- Gokturk, Camilla -- Baranczewski, Pawel -- Svensson, Richard -- Berntsson, Ronnie P-A -- Gustafsson, Robert -- Stromberg, Kia -- Sanjiv, Kumar -- Jacques-Cordonnier, Marie-Caroline -- Desroses, Matthieu -- Gustavsson, Anna-Lena -- Olofsson, Roger -- Johansson, Fredrik -- Homan, Evert J -- Loseva, Olga -- Brautigam, Lars -- Johansson, Lars -- Hoglund, Andreas -- Hagenkort, Anna -- Pham, Therese -- Altun, Mikael -- Gaugaz, Fabienne Z -- Vikingsson, Svante -- Evers, Bastiaan -- Henriksson, Martin -- Vallin, Karl S A -- Wallner, Olov A -- Hammarstrom, Lars G J -- Wiita, Elisee -- Almlof, Ingrid -- Kalderen, Christina -- Axelsson, Hanna -- Djureinovic, Tatjana -- Puigvert, Jordi Carreras -- Haggblad, Maria -- Jeppsson, Fredrik -- Martens, Ulf -- Lundin, Cecilia -- Lundgren, Bo -- Granelli, Ingrid -- Jensen, Annika Jenmalm -- Artursson, Per -- Nilsson, Jonas A -- Stenmark, Pal -- Scobie, Martin -- Berglund, Ulrika Warpman -- Helleday, Thomas -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):215-21. doi: 10.1038/nature13181. Epub 2014 Apr 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden [2]. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden [2] Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden, Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Sahlgrenska Translational Melanoma Group, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. ; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden [2] Uppsala University Drug Optimization and Pharmaceutical Profiling Platform, Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, S-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden. ; 1] Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden, Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden [2] Uppsala University Drug Optimization and Pharmaceutical Profiling Platform, Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, S-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden [2] Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoping University, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden. ; 1] Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 21 Stockholm, Sweden [2] Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1006 Amsterdam, The Netherlands (B.E.); Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Uppsala University, S-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden (T.D.). ; 1] Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden [2] Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1006 Amsterdam, The Netherlands (B.E.); Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Uppsala University, S-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden (T.D.). ; Science for Life Laboratory, RNAi Cell Screening Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695224" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Catalytic Domain ; Cell Death/drug effects ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Crystallization ; DNA Damage ; DNA Repair Enzymes/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Deoxyguanine Nucleotides/metabolism ; Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Conformation ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*metabolism/pathology ; Nucleotides/*metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects ; Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Pyrimidines/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Pyrophosphatases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Reproducibility of Results ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is known to depress glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the spinal cord of vertebrates. To test directly whether 5-HT inhibits synaptic glutamate release, we examined its effect on the ultrastructure of synaptic vesicle clusters in giant reticulospinal axons in a lower vertebrate (lamprey; Lampetra fluviatilis). The size of these axons makes it possible to selectively expose only a part of the presynaptic element to 5-HT, while another part of the same axon is maintained in control solution. Action potential stimulation at 20 Hz for 20 min caused a marked reduction in the number of synaptic vesicles in active zones maintained in control solution, while in the part exposed to 5-HT (20 μM) the number of synaptic vesicles per active zone was -3-fold higher. In contrast, 5-HT had no effect on the number of vesicles in resting axons. To examine whether 5-HT acts by reducing presynaptic Ca2+ influx, intra-axonal recordings of Ba2+ potentials were performed. No reduction of the axonal Ba2+ potential could be detected after application of 20 or 200 pM 5-HT. The present results show that 5-HT reduces the rate of synaptic exocytosis in reticulospinal axons. The effect appears to be mediated by a mechanism distinct from the presynaptic Ca2+ channels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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