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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Given the higher incidence of skin diseases in more urbanized populations and its association with the skin microbiome, we questioned how the skin microbiome differed depending on the degree of urbanization. Skin microbiomes of 231 healthy subjects in five large cities in China varied mainly with environment and socioeconomic status of the cities in question. The differences among microbiomes could be explained by the predominantly niche-based assembly of microbial communities, which was supported by a dominance test, β-null deviation, and edge-length abundance distribution. Networks among microbes in larger cities were more fragile, which may contribute to the higher incidence of skin diseases in more urbanized environments. These results suggest that microbial ecological theory can provide a framework for understanding crucial health-associated features of the human microbiome.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: In the prospective Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II), we investigated the application of metabolomics to differentiate subjects with incident hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC group) from subjects who remained free of cancer (control group) during a mean follow-up period of 7 years with the aim of identifying valuable metabolic biomarkers for HCC. We used baseline serum samples from 75 subjects with incident HCC and 134 age- and gender-matched cancer-free subjects. Serum metabolic profiles associated with HCC incidence were investigated via metabolomics analysis. Compared with the control group, the HCC group showed significantly higher serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, and -glutamyl transpeptidase. At baseline, compared with the control group, the HCC group showed significantly higher levels of 9 metabolites, including leucine, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid, phenylalanine, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), but lower levels of 28 metabolites, including oleamide, androsterone sulfate, L-palmitoylcarnitine, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) 16:0, LPA 18:1, and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC). Multiple linear regression revealed that the incidence of HCC was associated with the levels of tyrosine, AST, lysoPCs (16:1, 20:3), oleamide, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid, androsterone sulfate, and TUDCA (adjusted R 2 = 0.514, P = 0.036). This study showed the clinical relevance of the dysregulation of not only branched amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and lysoPCs but also bile acid biosynthesis and linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. In addition, tyrosine, AST, lysoPCs (16:1, 20:3), oleamide, 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid, androsterone sulfate, and TUDCA were identified as independent variables associated with the incidence of HCC. Cancer Prev Res; 11(5); 303–12. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1940-6207
    Electronic ISSN: 1940-6215
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to define clinically relevant somatic mutations and classify subtypes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Persistent allelic burden after chemotherapy is associated with higher relapse incidence, but presence of allelic burden in AML patients after receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has not been examined longitudinally. As such, we aimed to assess the feasibility of NGS in monitoring AML patients receiving HCT. Using a targeted gene panel, we performed NGS in 104 AML patients receiving HCT using samples collected at diagnosis, pre-HCT, and post-HCT at day 21 (post-HCT D21 ). NGS detected 256 mutations in 90 of 104 patients at diagnosis, which showed stepwise clearances after chemotherapy and HCT. In a subset of patients, mutations were still detectable pre-HCT and post-HCT. Most post-HCT mutations originate from mutations initially detected at diagnosis. Post-HCT D21 allelic burdens in relapsed patients were higher than in nonrelapsed patients. Post-HCT D21 mutations in relapsed patients all expanded at relapse. Assessment of variant allele frequency (VAF) revealed that overall VAF post-HCT D21 (VAF 0.2% -post-HCT D21 ) is associated with an increased risk of relapse (56.2% vs 16.0% at 3 years; P 〈 .001) and worse overall survival (OS; 36.5% vs 67.0% at 3 years; P = .006). Multivariate analyses confirmed that VAF 0.2% -post-HCT D21 is an adverse prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.07; P = .003) and relapse incidence (HR, 4.75; P 〈 .001), independent of the revised European LeukemiaNet risk groups. Overall, current study demonstrates that NGS-based posttransplant monitoring in AML patients is feasible and can distinguish high-risk patients for relapse.
    Keywords: Transplantation, Myeloid Neoplasia, Clinical Trials and Observations
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Background/Aim: Exosomes, derived from chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) cells, can be used as biomarkers and new targets for the detection of the BCR-ABL transcript. This study aimed to identify these possibilities. Materials and Methods: Human CML cell line-derived exosomes and CML-patients-derived exosomes were isolated with a size-exclusion chromatography column and ExoQuick™ exosome precipitation solution, respectively. Isolated exosomes were analysed by nested PCR to detect the BCR-ABL transcript. Results: Exosomes derived from the two human CML cell lines yielded a 250-bp band. RNA sequence analysis revealed 99% sequence homology with the partial mRNA for the human BCR-ABL chimeric protein. This ~250-bp band was also observed in the exosomes derived from patients with CML. However, only patients at the blast and accelerated phases showed the exosomal BCR-ABL transcript. Conclusion: CML-derived exosomes could act as novel targets for the detection of the BCR-ABL transcript.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Abnormalities in the human microbiota are associated with the etiology of allergic diseases. Although disease site-specific microbiota may be associated with disease pathophysiology, the role of the nasal microbiota is unclear. We sought to characterize the microbiota of the site of allergic rhinitis, the inferior turbinate, in subjects with allergic rhinitis ( n = 20) and healthy controls ( n = 12) and to examine the relationship of mucosal microbiota with disease occurrence, sensitized allergen number, and allergen-specific and total IgE levels. Microbial dysbiosis correlated significantly with total IgE levels representing combined allergic responses but not with disease occurrence, the number of sensitized allergens, or house dust mite allergen-specific IgE levels. Compared to the populations in individuals with low total IgE levels (group IgE low ), low microbial biodiversity with a high relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum ( Staphylococcus aureus ) and a low relative abundance of Actinobacteria phylum ( Propionibacterium acnes ) was observed in individuals with high total serum IgE levels (group IgE high ). Phylogeny-based microbial functional potential predicted by the 16S rRNA gene indicated an increase in signal transduction-related genes and a decrease in energy metabolism-related genes in group IgE high as shown in the microbial features with atopic and/or inflammatory diseases. Thus, dysbiosis of the inferior turbinate mucosa microbiota, particularly an increase in S. aureus and a decrease in P. acnes , is linked to high total IgE levels in allergic rhinitis, suggesting that inferior turbinate microbiota may be affected by accumulated allergic responses against sensitized allergens and that site-specific microbial alterations play a potential role in disease pathophysiology.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: We report a general strategy for obtaining high-quality, large-area metal-chalcogenide semiconductor films from precursors combining chelated metal salts with chalcoureas or chalcoamides. Using conventional organic solvents, such precursors enable the expeditious formation of chalco-gels, which are easily transformed into the corresponding high-performance metal-chalcogenide thin films with large, uniform areas. Diverse metal chalcogenides and their alloys (MQ x : M = Zn, Cd, In, Sb, Pb; Q = S, Se, Te) are successfully synthesized at relatively low processing temperatures (〈400°C). The versatility of this scalable route is demonstrated by the fabrication of large-area thin-film transistors (TFTs), optoelectronic devices, and integrated circuits on a 4-inch Si wafer and 2.5-inch borosilicate glass substrates in ambient air using CdS, CdSe, and In 2 Se 3 active layers. The CdSe TFTs exhibit a maximum field-effect mobility greater than 300 cm 2 V –1 s –1 with an on/off current ratio of 〉10 7 and good operational stability (threshold voltage shift 〈 0.5 V at a positive gate bias stress of 10 ks). In addition, metal chalcogenide–based phototransistors with a photodetectivity of 〉10 13 Jones and seven-stage ring oscillators operating at a speed of ~2.6 MHz (propagation delay of 〈 27 ns per stage) are demonstrated.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-03-05
    Description: Algorithms designed to identify canonical yeast prions predict that around 250 human proteins, including several RNA-binding proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease, harbour a distinctive prion-like domain (PrLD) enriched in uncharged polar amino acids and glycine. PrLDs in RNA-binding proteins are essential for the assembly of ribonucleoprotein granules. However, the interplay between human PrLD function and disease is not understood. Here we define pathogenic mutations in PrLDs of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2B1 and A1 in families with inherited degeneration affecting muscle, brain, motor neuron and bone, and in one case of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Wild-type hnRNPA2 (the most abundant isoform of hnRNPA2B1) and hnRNPA1 show an intrinsic tendency to assemble into self-seeding fibrils, which is exacerbated by the disease mutations. Indeed, the pathogenic mutations strengthen a 'steric zipper' motif in the PrLD, which accelerates the formation of self-seeding fibrils that cross-seed polymerization of wild-type hnRNP. Notably, the disease mutations promote excess incorporation of hnRNPA2 and hnRNPA1 into stress granules and drive the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions in animal models that recapitulate the human pathology. Thus, dysregulated polymerization caused by a potent mutant steric zipper motif in a PrLD can initiate degenerative disease. Related proteins with PrLDs should therefore be considered candidates for initiating and perhaps propagating proteinopathies of muscle, brain, motor neuron and bone.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756911/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756911/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Hong Joo -- Kim, Nam Chul -- Wang, Yong-Dong -- Scarborough, Emily A -- Moore, Jennifer -- Diaz, Zamia -- MacLea, Kyle S -- Freibaum, Brian -- Li, Songqing -- Molliex, Amandine -- Kanagaraj, Anderson P -- Carter, Robert -- Boylan, Kevin B -- Wojtas, Aleksandra M -- Rademakers, Rosa -- Pinkus, Jack L -- Greenberg, Steven A -- Trojanowski, John Q -- Traynor, Bryan J -- Smith, Bradley N -- Topp, Simon -- Gkazi, Athina-Soragia -- Miller, Jack -- Shaw, Christopher E -- Kottlors, Michael -- Kirschner, Janbernd -- Pestronk, Alan -- Li, Yun R -- Ford, Alice Flynn -- Gitler, Aaron D -- Benatar, Michael -- King, Oliver D -- Kimonis, Virginia E -- Ross, Eric D -- Weihl, Conrad C -- Shorter, James -- Taylor, J Paul -- 089701/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- AG031867/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG032953/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- DP2OD002177/OD/NIH HHS/ -- G0900688/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K02 AG042095/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- MC_G1000733/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- NS053825/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS067354/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG032953/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG031867/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS053825/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Mar 28;495(7442):467-73. doi: 10.1038/nature11922. Epub 2013 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38120, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23455423" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/*genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Animals ; Drosophila melanogaster/cytology/genetics/metabolism ; Female ; Frontotemporal Dementia/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; HeLa Cells ; Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Inclusion Bodies/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Mutation/*genetics ; Myositis, Inclusion Body/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Osteitis Deformans/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Peptide Termination Factors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Prions/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; RNA/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results, we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons from patients with C9orf72-related disease. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Freibaum, Brian D -- Lu, Yubing -- Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo -- Kim, Nam Chul -- Almeida, Sandra -- Lee, Kyung-Ha -- Badders, Nisha -- Valentine, Marc -- Miller, Bruce L -- Wong, Philip C -- Petrucelli, Leonard -- Kim, Hong Joo -- Gao, Fen-Biao -- Taylor, J Paul -- AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N079725/PHS HHS/ -- NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS057553/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):129-33. doi: 10.1038/nature14974. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; DNA Repeat Expansion/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Eye/metabolism ; Female ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/pathology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Muscles/cytology/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Nuclear Pore/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Open Reading Frames/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteins/*genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Transport/*genetics ; Salivary Glands/cytology/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Purpose: Cancer cells grow in an unfavorable metabolic milieu in the tumor microenvironment and are constantly exposed to metabolic stress such as chronic nutrient depletion. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are intrinsically resistant to metabolic stress, thereby surviving nutrient insufficiency and driving more malignant tumor progression. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the potential mechanisms by which CSCs avoid Ca 2+ -dependent apoptosis during glucose deprivation. Experimental Design: We investigated cell viability and apoptosis under glucose deprivation, performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of paired CSCs and parental cells, studied the effect of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 alpha ( CaMK2α ) gene knockdown, and investigated the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NFB) in CSCs during time-dependent Ca 2+ -mediated and glucose deprivation–induced apoptosis. We also observed the effect of combined treatment with 2-deoxy- d -glucose, a metabolic inhibitor that mimics glucose deprivation conditions in mouse xenograft models, and thapsigargin, a specific inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA). Results: We demonstrated the coordinated upregulation of SERCA in CSCs. SERCA, in turn, is transcriptionally regulated by CaMK2α via NFB activation. Combined treatment with 2-deoxy- d -glucose and thapsigargin, a specific inhibitor of SERCA, significantly reduced tumor growth compared with that in untreated control animals or those treated with the metabolic inhibitor alone. Conclusions: The current study provides compelling evidence that CaMK2α acts as a key antiapoptosis regulator in metabolic stress-resistant CSCs by activating NFB. The latter induces expression of SERCA, allowing survival in glucose-deprived conditions. Importantly, our combination therapeutic strategy provides a novel approach for the clinical application of CSC treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1677–90. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Background/Aim: Flavokawain B (FKB), is a natural chalcone isolated from kava root that induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Herein we investigated the effects of combination of FKB and daunorubicin (DNR) on human leukemic cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability and death were assessed by the MTS assay and flow cytometry. NK-B was detected by western blotting. Results: FKB alone and in combination with DNR reduced the viable cell numbers of four leukemic cell lines. FKB itself induced apoptosis of an acute myeloid cell line, HL-60. Because the additive effect of DNR and FKB was most obvious in HL-60 cells, subsequent experiments were performed with HL-60 cells. Combined treatment of the two compounds increased NF-B activation at 12 h. Conclusion: A combination treatment of DNR and FKB may improve the anticancer effects of DNR in DNR-resistant acute myeloid leukemia.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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