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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-10-02
    Description: Haploids and double haploids are important resources for studying recessive traits and have large impacts on crop breeding, but natural haploids are rare in animals. Mammalian haploids are restricted to germline cells and are occasionally found in tumours with massive chromosome loss. Recent success in establishing haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells in medaka fish and mice raised the possibility of using engineered mammalian haploid cells in genetic studies. However, the availability and functional characterization of mammalian haploid ES cells are still limited. Here we show that mouse androgenetic haploid ES (ahES) cell lines can be established by transferring sperm into an enucleated oocyte. The ahES cells maintain haploidy and stable growth over 30 passages, express pluripotent markers, possess the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo, and contribute to germlines of chimaeras when injected into blastocysts. Although epigenetically distinct from sperm cells, the ahES cells can produce viable and fertile progenies after intracytoplasmic injection into mature oocytes. The oocyte-injection procedure can also produce viable transgenic mice from genetically engineered ahES cells. Our findings show the developmental pluripotency of androgenentic haploids and provide a new tool to quickly produce genetic models for recessive traits. They may also shed new light on assisted reproduction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Wei -- Shuai, Ling -- Wan, Haifeng -- Dong, Mingzhu -- Wang, Meng -- Sang, Lisi -- Feng, Chunjing -- Luo, Guan-Zheng -- Li, Tianda -- Li, Xin -- Wang, Libin -- Zheng, Qin-Yuan -- Sheng, Chao -- Wu, Hua-Jun -- Liu, Zhonghua -- Liu, Lei -- Wang, Liu -- Wang, Xiu-Jie -- Zhao, Xiao-Yang -- Zhou, Qi -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 18;490(7420):407-11. doi: 10.1038/nature11435. Epub 2012 Sep 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023130" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androgens/*metabolism ; Animals ; Biomarkers/metabolism ; Blastocyst/cytology ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus ; Chimera/embryology/genetics ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology/*physiology ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; *Haploidy ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic/embryology/genetics/*growth & development ; Models, Animal ; Models, Genetic ; Oocytes/cytology/growth & development/metabolism ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/physiology ; Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic ; Spermatozoa/metabolism/transplantation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4255705/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4255705/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Iversen, Lars -- Tu, Hsiung-Lin -- Lin, Wan-Chen -- Christensen, Sune M -- Abel, Steven M -- Iwig, Jeff -- Wu, Hung-Jen -- Gureasko, Jodi -- Rhodes, Christopher -- Petit, Rebecca S -- Hansen, Scott D -- Thill, Peter -- Yu, Cheng-Han -- Stamou, Dimitrios -- Chakraborty, Arup K -- Kuriyan, John -- Groves, Jay T -- P01 AI091580/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI104789/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):50-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1250373.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; Department of Chemistry and Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Department of Chemistry, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Department of Biological Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Physical Biosciences and Materials Sciences Divisions, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Physical Biosciences and Materials Sciences Divisions, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Berkeley Education Alliance for Research in Singapore, 1 Create Way, CREATE tower level 11, University Town, Singapore 138602. jtgroves@lbl.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24994643" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation ; Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Enzyme Activation ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Nucleotides/chemistry ; *Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/*agonists ; Son of Sevenless Protein, Drosophila/*chemistry/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana ; Chlorophyll synthetase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract During the course of an Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequencing project, we identified a gene, G4, with a derived amino acid sequence showing homology to the product of the Rhodobacter capsulatus bchG locus which is involved in the esterification of bacteriochlorophyllide with geranylgeraniol. The relationship between this gene and bchG was confirmed by the isolation and analysis of a corresponding full-length cDNA. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences indicated that the gene is made up of 14 exons, some of them being very short. Southern and Northern analyses showed that this sequence represents a single-copy gene and its transcript is detected only in green or greening tissues. Both homologies and expression data suggest that this gene encodes a chlorophyll synthetase, one of the last enzymes of chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus represents a new example of a nuclear gene encoding an enzyme of this pathway in higher plants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Sex pheromone ; Ostrinia furnacalis ; E12–14∶OAc ; Z12–14∶OAc ; 14∶OAc
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract (E)-12-Tetradecenyl acetate (E12–14∶OAc), (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (Z12–143nOAc), and tetradecanyl acetate (14∶OAc) were extracted and identified as major chemical components from female tips of the Asian corn borer,Ostrinia furnacalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Taiwan, with a combined wash ratio of 48∶37∶15 and an individual female ratio of 45∶39∶16. The average amount ofE12-,Z12–14∶OAc and 14∶OAc in each female gland was 6.6±4.6, 5.8±3.5, and 2.4±1.7 ng/female, respectively. The mixture of these three synthetic chemicals not only gave strong activities in male antennae but also could catch significantly more males than virgin females in field-trapping tests. The field test also showed no significant difference in trapping ability among the three-component Taiwan formulations, the two-component Taiwan formulation (Z12–14∶OAc andZ1214∶OAc, 53∶47), and the Japan formulation (Z12–14∶ OAc andE 12–14∶OAc, 3:2).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: Key words Sporadic ovarian cancer ; BRCA1 ; Somatic mutation ; Loss of heterozygosity ; Japanese
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene, on chromosome 17q21, confer susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. It remains uncertain, however, whether somatic mutations in BRCA1 play a role in sporadic ovarian carcinogenesis. Methods. Samples of tumor and normal (peripheral blood) DNA were collected from 19 patients with sporadic (that is, no known family history) ovarian cancer. The BRCA1 gene alteration was analyzed for the entire coding region, using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique followed by direct sequencing. Results. We found two somatic mutations in the 19 patients. One was an A deletion at nucleotide position 2073, leading to premature truncation of BRCA1 protein at codon 700, and the other was a G-to-A transition at nucleotide position 4498, resulting in substitution of serine for aspartic acid at codon 1460. In addition, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was also observed at a BRCA1 intragenic marker in samples of both tumor and blood. Conclusion. Our data suggest that somatic mutation of the BRCA1 gene, in conjunction with LOH, may be a critical event in the genesis of a subgroup of sporadic ovarian cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Keywords: Allenyl Ether ; Furans ; Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reaction ; Methylthio Group 1,4-Rearrangement
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Electronics 31 (1988), S. 1421-1431 
    ISSN: 0038-1101
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature genetics 14 (1996), S. 383-384 
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Sir — We report the identification of a novel AU-AA intron within a plant gene. This non-canonical intron was found upon sequencing a contig on chromosome 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia, in a single copy gene called AtG5l. The comparison to cognate cDNAs from the same ecotype ...
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