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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-07-17
    Description: Alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are associated with several chronic conditions, including obesity and inflammatory diseases. The microbiota of older people displays greater inter-individual variation than that of younger adults. Here we show that the faecal microbiota composition from 178 elderly subjects formed groups, correlating with residence location in the community, day-hospital, rehabilitation or in long-term residential care. However, clustering of subjects by diet separated them by the same residence location and microbiota groupings. The separation of microbiota composition significantly correlated with measures of frailty, co-morbidity, nutritional status, markers of inflammation and with metabolites in faecal water. The individual microbiota of people in long-stay care was significantly less diverse than that of community dwellers. Loss of community-associated microbiota correlated with increased frailty. Collectively, the data support a relationship between diet, microbiota and health status, and indicate a role for diet-driven microbiota alterations in varying rates of health decline upon ageing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Claesson, Marcus J -- Jeffery, Ian B -- Conde, Susana -- Power, Susan E -- O'Connor, Eibhlis M -- Cusack, Siobhan -- Harris, Hugh M B -- Coakley, Mairead -- Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari -- O'Sullivan, Orla -- Fitzgerald, Gerald F -- Deane, Jennifer -- O'Connor, Michael -- Harnedy, Norma -- O'Connor, Kieran -- O'Mahony, Denis -- van Sinderen, Douwe -- Wallace, Martina -- Brennan, Lorraine -- Stanton, Catherine -- Marchesi, Julian R -- Fitzgerald, Anthony P -- Shanahan, Fergus -- Hill, Colin -- Ross, R Paul -- O'Toole, Paul W -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 9;488(7410):178-84. doi: 10.1038/nature11319.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Ireland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22797518" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Aging/*physiology ; Cohort Studies ; Diet/*statistics & numerical data ; Diet Surveys ; Feces/*microbiology ; Fruit ; Geriatric Assessment ; Health ; *Health Status ; Health Surveys ; Homes for the Aged ; Hospitals, Community ; Humans ; Intestines/*microbiology ; Meat ; Metagenome/*physiology ; Rehabilitation Centers ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Vegetables
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The performance of doped barrier, multiple-quantum-well avalanche photodiodes (MQW APDs) is reported for the first time. Investigations are presented for a 800 A(ring)/200 A(ring) MQW Al0.35Ga0.65As/GaAs undoped structure with a p-n junction in each barrier. The devices exhibit low dark currents, low breakdown voltages (−10 V), and gains up to 20 for electron injection. Noise measurements show an enhancement of the electron to hole ionization rates ratio, α/β, to values between 50 and 12.5 for gains up to 5, and to 5 for gains above 5. α/β is enhanced by a factor of 6 over the bulk GaAs, and a factor of at least 2 over the simple MQW APD. The particular design we report provides medium gain and very-low-noise characteristics at low bias voltage. These experimental noise results are the best reported so far for AlGaAs/GaAs MQW APD structures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Resonant tunneling is reported for the first time in a series of variably spaced AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures in which the levels in adjacent quantum wells are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Resonant tunneling and negative differential resistance effects are observed for two- and three-well structures designed for electron injection at voltages between 0.1 and 0.2 V.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report the effects of a transverse magnetic field (J⊥B) on the conductivity of quantum well tunneling structures based on AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The current-voltage characteristics in the positive differential resistance regime show negative magnetoconductance for all values of B. The peak bias voltage increases monotonically with increasing B. For B〈6 T there is a decrease in the peak tunneling current, but then it increases for B〉6 T. The data also show dramatic magnetic field induced changes in the negative differential resistance (NDR) features. The behavior of the NDR changes from sharp hysteretic bistable-like transitions to astable NDR transitions. Both the valley current and its bias voltage position increase with increasing magnetic field. This behavior is described by a simple model that includes magnetic field effects across the barriers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use may affect ovarian cancer risk via prostaglandin synthesis and tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration. We evaluated if associations between aspirin or non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian cancer risk differed by tumor expression of prostaglandin-related (COX1, COX2) and TAM-related (CD68, CD163) markers. Methods: We evaluated cases and matched controls from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and New England Case-Control Study (NECC). Cases with IHC data on COX1 and COX2 ( n = 532) or CD68 and CD163 ( n = 530) were included. We used polytomous logistic regression, adjusted for ovarian cancer risk factors, to estimate OR for NSAID use and ovarian cancer risk by marker level. Results: Recent aspirin use had a nonsignificant inverse association and recent non-aspirin NSAID use had no association with ovarian cancer risk. NSAID use was not differentially associated with ovarian cancer by COX1 or COX2 expression. However, recent aspirin use was associated with lower ovarian cancer risk for high [OR 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37–0.78], but not low (OR 1.50; 95% CI, 0.97–2.31), CD163 density ( P heterogeneity 〈 0.001). Similar results were observed for aspirin duration and tablets and for recent non-aspirin NSAID use. Results were not clearly different by macrophage density defined by the less specific macrophage marker, CD68. Conclusions: NSAID use was inversely associated with risk of ovarian cancer with high density CD163, a marker for M2-type, immunosuppressive macrophages. However, the relationship did not differ by prostaglandin synthesis markers. Impact: Future research should explore prostaglandin-independent mechanisms for the association between NSAID use and ovarian cancer risk, including immune mechanisms.
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Stroke induces a multiphasic systemic immune response, but the consequences of this response on atherosclerosis—a major source of recurrent vascular events—have not been thoroughly investigated. We show that stroke exacerbates atheroprogression via alarmin-mediated propagation of vascular inflammation. The prototypic brain-released alarmin high-mobility group box 1 protein induced monocyte and endothelial activation via the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)–signaling cascade and increased plaque load and vulnerability. Recruitment of activated monocytes via the CC-chemokine ligand 2–CC-chemokine receptor type 2 pathway was critical in stroke-induced vascular inflammation. Neutralization of circulating alarmins or knockdown of RAGE attenuated atheroprogression. Blockage of β3-adrenoreceptors attenuated the egress of myeloid monocytes after stroke, whereas neutralization of circulating alarmins was required to reduce systemic monocyte activation and aortic invasion. Our findings identify a synergistic effect of the sympathetic stress response and alarmin-driven inflammation via RAGE as a critical mechanism of exacerbated atheroprogression after stroke.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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