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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Purpose: M2-type TAMs are increasingly implicated as a crucial factor promoting metastasis. Numerous cell types dictate monocyte differentiation into M2 TAMs via a complex network of cytokine-based communication. Elucidating critical pathways in this network can provide new targets for inhibiting metastasis. In this study, we focused on cancer cells, CAFs, and monocytes as a major node in this network. Experimental Design: Monocyte cocultures with cancer-stimulated CAFs were used to investigate differentiation into M2-like TAMs. Cytokine array analyses were employed to discover the CAF-derived regulators of differentiation. These regulators were validated in primary CAFs and bone marrow-derived monocytes. Orthotopic, syngeneic colon carcinoma models using cotransplanted CAFs were established to observe effects on tumor growth and metastasis. To confirm a correlation with clinical evidence, meta-analyses were employed using the Oncomine database. Results: Our coculture studies identify IL6 and GM-CSF as the pivotal signals released from cancer cell–activated CAFs that cooperate to induce monocyte differentiation into M2-like TAMs. In orthotopic, syngeneic colon carcinoma mouse models, cotransplanted CAFs elevated IL6 and GM-CSF levels, TAM infiltration, and metastasis. These pathologic effects were dramatically reversed by joint IL6 and GM-CSF blockade. A positive correlation between GM-CSF and IL6 expression and disease course was observed by meta-analyses of the clinical data. Conclusions: Our studies indicate a significant reappraisal of the role of IL6 and GM-CSF in metastasis and implicate CAFs as the "henchmen" for cancer cells in producing an immunosuppressive tumor ecological niche. Dual targeting of GM-CSF and IL6 is a promising new approach for inhibiting metastasis. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5407–21. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Diabetic patients with cardiomyopathy show a higher incidence of arrhythmias and sudden death. Chronic hyperglycemia induces the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study investigated whether inhibition of AGEs formation by aminoguanidine (AG) could prevent cardiac electromechanical and arrhythmogenic remodeling in diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received AG (100 mg/kg daily, i.p.) or vehicle (normal saline, i.p.) for 5 weeks. The rats underwent hemodynamic recording to evaluate cardiac function, and heart preparations were used to determine the electrical, mechanical, and biochemical functions. In vitro high glucose-induced AGEs formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and action potential changes were examined in HL-1 atrial cells. AG treatment improved the diabetes-induced depression in left ventricular pressure and the relaxation rate, and normalized the prolongation of QTc intervals in anesthetized rats. AG reduced the vulnerabilities to atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in perfused diabetic hearts. AG normalized the prolonged action potential duration in diabetic atrial and ventricular muscles, which was correlated with the restoration of both transient outward ( I to ) and steady-state outward ( I SS ) K + current densities in cardiomyocytes. The abnormal kinetics of Ca 2+ transients and contraction were reversed in cardiomyocytes from AG-treated diabetic rats, along with parallel preservation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA2a) expression. Furthermore, ex vivo and in vitro studies showed AG attenuated AGEs and ROS formation. Thus, long-term administration of AG ameliorated cardiac electromechanical remodeling and arrhythmogenicity in diabetic rats and may present an effective strategy for the prevention of diabetes-associated arrhythmias.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Background: This study evaluated the efficacy of haematological markers for predicting the pathological complete regression (pCR) during and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Patients and Methods: A total of 297 patients with LARC underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgical resection. Complete blood counts (CBCs) were performed before CRT, 3 weeks after the start of CRT (intra-therapy), and 4 weeks after CRT. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were calculated using the serial CBC test. The ratio of change in PLR (cPLR) and NLR (cNLR) was calculated as the increase from the pre-therapy value to intra-therapy or post-therapy value divided by the pre-therapy value. Chi-square and t-test for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify significant predictors for pCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare predictive values. Results: The overall rate of pCR was 15.9%. Pre-therapy high haemoglobin and low NLR; intra-therapy high PLR, high NLR, high cPLR, and high cNLR; and post-therapy low white blood cell count (WBC), high haemoglobin, and high cPLR were significantly associated with pCR. In multivariate logistic regression, pre-therapy high haemoglobin [odds ratio (OR)=1.500, p=0.016], high intra-therapy PLR (OR=1.006, p=0.011), high intra-therapy cPLR (OR=4.948, p〈0.001), and low post-therapy WBC (OR=0.639, p=0.003) were significant predictors for pCR. ROC analysis showed that high intra-therapy cPLR was the most accurate predictor of pCR (area under the curve=0.741). Conclusion: Changes of PLR during neoadjuvant CRT for LARC are significant predictors of pCR.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Unknown
    New York : Parthenon Pub. Group
    Call number: QZ200:466
    Keywords: Medical oncology / history
    Notes: "A chronological record of progress in oncology over the last millennium" -- Cover.
    Pages: 124 p. : ill., ports.
    ISBN: 1850704996
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-10-30
    Description: Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with severe human diseases and are maternally inherited through the egg's cytoplasm. Here we investigated the feasibility of mtDNA replacement in human oocytes by spindle transfer (ST; also called spindle-chromosomal complex transfer). Of 106 human oocytes donated for research, 65 were subjected to reciprocal ST and 33 served as controls. Fertilization rate in ST oocytes (73%) was similar to controls (75%); however, a significant portion of ST zygotes (52%) showed abnormal fertilization as determined by an irregular number of pronuclei. Among normally fertilized ST zygotes, blastocyst development (62%) and embryonic stem cell isolation (38%) rates were comparable to controls. All embryonic stem cell lines derived from ST zygotes had normal euploid karyotypes and contained exclusively donor mtDNA. The mtDNA can be efficiently replaced in human oocytes. Although some ST oocytes displayed abnormal fertilization, remaining embryos were capable of developing to blastocysts and producing embryonic stem cells similar to controls.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3561483/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3561483/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tachibana, Masahito -- Amato, Paula -- Sparman, Michelle -- Woodward, Joy -- Sanchis, Dario Melguizo -- Ma, Hong -- Gutierrez, Nuria Marti -- Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca -- Kang, Eunju -- Lee, Hyo-Sang -- Ramsey, Cathy -- Masterson, Keith -- Battaglia, David -- Lee, David -- Wu, Diana -- Jensen, Jeffrey -- Patton, Phillip -- Gokhale, Sumita -- Stouffer, Richard -- Mitalipov, Shoukhrat -- 8P51OD011092/OD/NIH HHS/ -- EY021214/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- HD057121/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD059946/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD063276/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011092/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P51 RR000163/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021214/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD057121/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD059946/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD063276/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 31;493(7434):627-31. doi: 10.1038/nature11647. Epub 2012 Oct 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23103867" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Cell Nucleus/genetics ; Cryopreservation ; Cytoplasm/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Embryo, Mammalian/embryology ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology ; Female ; Fertilization ; *Genetic Therapy ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/genetics/growth & development ; Microsatellite Repeats/genetics ; Mitochondrial Diseases/*genetics/*therapy ; Nuclear Transfer Techniques/*standards ; Oocytes/cytology ; Pregnancy ; Young Adult ; Zygote/cytology/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-01-07
    Description: A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of 〉100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating approximately 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada, Yukinori -- Wu, Di -- Trynka, Gosia -- Raj, Towfique -- Terao, Chikashi -- Ikari, Katsunori -- Kochi, Yuta -- Ohmura, Koichiro -- Suzuki, Akari -- Yoshida, Shinji -- Graham, Robert R -- Manoharan, Arun -- Ortmann, Ward -- Bhangale, Tushar -- Denny, Joshua C -- Carroll, Robert J -- Eyler, Anne E -- Greenberg, Jeffrey D -- Kremer, Joel M -- Pappas, Dimitrios A -- Jiang, Lei -- Yin, Jian -- Ye, Lingying -- Su, Ding-Feng -- Yang, Jian -- Xie, Gang -- Keystone, Ed -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Esko, Tonu -- Metspalu, Andres -- Zhou, Xuezhong -- Gupta, Namrata -- Mirel, Daniel -- Stahl, Eli A -- Diogo, Dorothee -- Cui, Jing -- Liao, Katherine -- Guo, Michael H -- Myouzen, Keiko -- Kawaguchi, Takahisa -- Coenen, Marieke J H -- van Riel, Piet L C M -- van de Laar, Mart A F J -- Guchelaar, Henk-Jan -- Huizinga, Tom W J -- Dieude, Philippe -- Mariette, Xavier -- Bridges, S Louis Jr -- Zhernakova, Alexandra -- Toes, Rene E M -- Tak, Paul P -- Miceli-Richard, Corinne -- Bang, So-Young -- Lee, Hye-Soon -- Martin, Javier -- Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A -- Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis -- Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt -- Arlestig, Lisbeth -- Choi, Hyon K -- Kamatani, Yoichiro -- Galan, Pilar -- Lathrop, Mark -- RACI consortium -- GARNET consortium -- Eyre, Steve -- Bowes, John -- Barton, Anne -- de Vries, Niek -- Moreland, Larry W -- Criswell, Lindsey A -- Karlson, Elizabeth W -- Taniguchi, Atsuo -- Yamada, Ryo -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Liu, Jun S -- Bae, Sang-Cheol -- Worthington, Jane -- Padyukov, Leonid -- Klareskog, Lars -- Gregersen, Peter K -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Stranger, Barbara E -- De Jager, Philip L -- Franke, Lude -- Visscher, Peter M -- Brown, Matthew A -- Yamanaka, Hisashi -- Mimori, Tsuneyo -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Xu, Huji -- Behrens, Timothy W -- Siminovitch, Katherine A -- Momohara, Shigeki -- Matsuda, Fumihiko -- Yamamoto, Kazuhiko -- Plenge, Robert M -- 20385/Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- 79321/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- K08-KAR055688A/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AR052403/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- P60 AR047785/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063759/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056291/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR065944/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR063759-01A1/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AR056042/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- T15 LM007450/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 HL065962/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):376-81. doi: 10.1038/nature12873. Epub 2013 Dec 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. [5] Centre for Cancer Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; 1] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Institute for the Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-0054, Japan. ; Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Immunology Biomarkers Group, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, New York 10003, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Albany Medical Center and The Center for Rheumatology, Albany, New York 12206, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, New York, Presbyterian Hospital, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China. ; Department of Pharmacology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; 1] University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. [2] Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. [2] Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. [3] Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Department of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Arthritis Center Twente, University Twente & Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede 7500 AE, the Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] Service de Rhumatologie et INSERM U699 Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Paris 75018, France. [2] Universite Paris 7-Diderot, Paris 75013, France. ; Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U1012, Universite Paris-Sud, Rhumatologie, Hopitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Le Kremlin Bicetre 94275, France. ; Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] AMC/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. [2] GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK. [3] University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hanyang University Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Seoul 133-792, South Korea. ; Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez-Neyra, CSIC, Granada 18100, Spain. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, IFIMAV, Santander 39008, Spain. ; Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid 28040, Spain. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02115, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Section of Rheumatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [3] Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH), Paris 75010, France. ; Universite Paris 13 Sorbonne Paris Cite, UREN (Nutritional Epidemiology Research Unit), Inserm (U557), Inra (U1125), Cnam, Bobigny 93017, France. ; McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G1 Canada. ; 1] Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research, Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology & Department of Genome Analysis, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. ; Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94117, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Unit of Statistical Genetics, Center for Genomic Medicine Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] NIHR Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical, Research Unit, Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; 1] Section of Genetic Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. [2] Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. [3] Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite U852, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; 1] Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [2] Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390342" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*drug therapy/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Computational Biology ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Repositioning ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-10
    Description: Vertically ordered arrays of silicon nanoneedles (Si NNs), due to their nanoscale dimension and low cytotoxicity, could enable minimally invasive nanoinjection of biomolecules into living biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although production of these Si NNs on a bulk Si wafer has been achieved through standard nanofabrication technology, there exists a large mismatch at the interface between the rigid, flat, and opaque Si wafer and soft, curvilinear, and optically transparent biological systems. Here, we report a unique methodology that is capable of constructing vertically ordered Si NNs on a thin layer of elastomer patch to flexibly and transparently interface with biological systems. The resulting outcome provides important capabilities to form a mechanically elastic interface between Si NNs and biological systems, and simultaneously enables direct imaging of their real-time interactions under the transparent condition. We demonstrate its utility in intracellular, intradermal, and intramuscular nanoinjection of biomolecules into various kinds of biological cells and tissues at their length scales.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Abnormalities in the human microbiota are associated with the etiology of allergic diseases. Although disease site-specific microbiota may be associated with disease pathophysiology, the role of the nasal microbiota is unclear. We sought to characterize the microbiota of the site of allergic rhinitis, the inferior turbinate, in subjects with allergic rhinitis ( n = 20) and healthy controls ( n = 12) and to examine the relationship of mucosal microbiota with disease occurrence, sensitized allergen number, and allergen-specific and total IgE levels. Microbial dysbiosis correlated significantly with total IgE levels representing combined allergic responses but not with disease occurrence, the number of sensitized allergens, or house dust mite allergen-specific IgE levels. Compared to the populations in individuals with low total IgE levels (group IgE low ), low microbial biodiversity with a high relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum ( Staphylococcus aureus ) and a low relative abundance of Actinobacteria phylum ( Propionibacterium acnes ) was observed in individuals with high total serum IgE levels (group IgE high ). Phylogeny-based microbial functional potential predicted by the 16S rRNA gene indicated an increase in signal transduction-related genes and a decrease in energy metabolism-related genes in group IgE high as shown in the microbial features with atopic and/or inflammatory diseases. Thus, dysbiosis of the inferior turbinate mucosa microbiota, particularly an increase in S. aureus and a decrease in P. acnes , is linked to high total IgE levels in allergic rhinitis, suggesting that inferior turbinate microbiota may be affected by accumulated allergic responses against sensitized allergens and that site-specific microbial alterations play a potential role in disease pathophysiology.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Cecilia Lanny Winata, Maciej Łapinski, Leszek Pryszcz, Candida Vaz, Muhammad Hisyam bin Ismail, Srikanth Nama, Hajira Shreen Hajan, Serene Gek Ping Lee, Vladimir Korzh, Prabha Sampath, Vivek Tanavde, and Sinnakaruppan Mathavan In the earliest stages of animal development following fertilization, maternally deposited mRNAs direct biological processes to the point of zygotic genome activation (ZGA). These maternal mRNAs undergo cytoplasmic polyadenylation (CPA), suggesting translational control of their activation. To elucidate the biological role of CPA during embryogenesis, we performed genome-wide polysome profiling at several stages of zebrafish development. Our analysis revealed a correlation between CPA and polysome-association dynamics, demonstrating a coupling of translation to the CPA of maternal mRNAs. Pan-embryonic CPA inhibition disrupted the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), causing a failure of developmental progression beyond the mid-blastula transition and changes in global gene expression that indicated a failure of ZGA and maternal mRNA clearance. Among the genes that were differentially expressed were those encoding chromatin modifiers and key transcription factors involved in ZGA, including nanog , pou5f3 and sox19b , which have distinct CPA dynamics. Our results establish the necessity of CPA for ensuring progression of the MZT. The RNA-seq data generated in this study represent a valuable zebrafish resource for the discovery of novel elements of the early embryonic transcriptome.
    Print ISSN: 0950-1991
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9129
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Human intestinal organoids (hIOs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have immense potential as a source of intestines. Therefore, an efficient system is needed for visualizing the stage of intestinal differentiation and further identifying hIOs derived from hPSCs. Here, 2 fluorescent biosensors were developed based on human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines that stably expressed fluorescent reporters driven by intestine-specific gene promoters Krüppel-like factor 5 monomeric Cherry (KLF5 mCherry ) and intestine-specific homeobox enhanced green fluorescence protein (ISX eGFP ). Then hIOs were efficiently induced from those transgenic hiPSC lines in which mCherry– or eGFP–expressing cells, which appeared during differentiation, could be identified in intact living cells in real time. Reporter gene expression had no adverse effects on differentiation into hIOs and proliferation. Using our reporter system to screen for hIO differentiation factors, we identified DMH1 as an efficient substitute for Noggin. Transplanted hIOs under the kidney capsule were tracked with fluorescence imaging (FLI) and confirmed histologically. After orthotopic transplantation, the localization of the hIOs in the small intestine could be accurately visualized using FLI. Our study establishes a selective system for monitoring the in vitro differentiation and for tracking the in vivo localization of hIOs and contributes to further improvement of cell-based therapies and preclinical screenings in the intestinal field.—Jung, K. B., Lee, H., Son, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Cho, H.-S., Lee, M.-O., Oh, J.-H., Lee, J., Kim, S., Jung, C.-R., Kim, J., Son, M.-Y. In vitro and in vivo imaging and tracking of intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Print ISSN: 0892-6638
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-6860
    Topics: Biology
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