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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-06-05
    Description: Because most neurons receive thousands of synaptic inputs, the neuronal membrane is a mosaic of specialized microdomains where neurotransmitter receptors cluster in register with the corresponding presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites. In many cases the coordinated differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic domains implicates trans-synaptic interactions between membrane-associated proteins such as neurexins and neuroligins. The Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junction (NMJ) provides a genetically tractable system in which to analyse the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors, because muscle cells receive excitatory innervation from cholinergic neurons and inhibitory innervation from GABAergic neurons. Here we show that Ce-Punctin/madd-4 (ref. 5), the C. elegans orthologue of mammalian punctin-1 and punctin-2, encodes neurally secreted isoforms that specify the excitatory or inhibitory identity of postsynaptic NMJ domains. These proteins belong to the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin repeats)-like family, a class of extracellular matrix proteins related to the ADAM proteases but devoid of proteolytic activity. Ce-Punctin deletion causes the redistribution of synaptic acetylcholine and GABAA (gamma-aminobutyric acid type A) receptors into extrasynaptic clusters, whereas neuronal presynaptic boutons remain unaltered. Alternative promoters generate different Ce-Punctin isoforms with distinct functions. A short isoform is expressed by cholinergic and GABAergic motoneurons and localizes to excitatory and inhibitory NMJs, whereas long isoforms are expressed exclusively by cholinergic motoneurons and are confined to cholinergic NMJs. The differential expression of these isoforms controls the congruence between presynaptic and postsynaptic domains: specific disruption of the short isoform relocalizes GABAA receptors from GABAergic to cholinergic synapses, whereas expression of a long isoform in GABAergic neurons recruits acetylcholine receptors to GABAergic NMJs. These results identify Ce-Punctin as a previously unknown synaptic organizer and show that presynaptic and postsynaptic domain identities can be genetically uncoupled in vivo. Because human punctin-2 was identified as a candidate gene for schizophrenia, ADAMTS-like proteins may also control synapse organization in the mammalian central nervous system.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pinan-Lucarre, Berangere -- Tu, Haijun -- Pierron, Marie -- Cruceyra, Pablo Ibanez -- Zhan, Hong -- Stigloher, Christian -- Richmond, Janet E -- Bessereau, Jean-Louis -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 24;511(7510):466-70. doi: 10.1038/nature13313. Epub 2014 Jun 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Institute of Biology, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75005 Paris, France [2] University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CGphiMC UMR CNRS 5534, 69622 Villeurbanne, France [3]. ; 1] Institute of Biology, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75005 Paris, France [2] University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CGphiMC UMR CNRS 5534, 69622 Villeurbanne, France. ; Institute of Biology, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75005 Paris, France. ; 1] Institute of Biology, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75005 Paris, France [2] University of Wurzburg, Biocenter, Division of Electron Microscopy, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24896188" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADAM Proteins/metabolism ; Acetylcholine/metabolism ; Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Cholinergic Neurons/*metabolism ; Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism ; GABAergic Neurons/*metabolism ; Motor Neurons/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/*metabolism ; Neuromuscular Junction ; Post-Synaptic Density/*metabolism ; Protein Isoforms/chemistry/deficiency/metabolism ; Receptors, Cholinergic/metabolism ; Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: We describe the draft genome of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex, which is only 200 megabases and contains at least 30,907 genes. The high gene count is a consequence of an elevated rate of gene duplication resulting in tandem gene clusters. More than a third of Daphnia's genes have no detectable homologs in any other available proteome, and the most amplified gene families are specific to the Daphnia lineage. The coexpansion of gene families interacting within metabolic pathways suggests that the maintenance of duplicated genes is not random, and the analysis of gene expression under different environmental conditions reveals that numerous paralogs acquire divergent expression patterns soon after duplication. Daphnia-specific genes, including many additional loci within sequenced regions that are otherwise devoid of annotations, are the most responsive genes to ecological challenges.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3529199/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3529199/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Colbourne, John K -- Pfrender, Michael E -- Gilbert, Donald -- Thomas, W Kelley -- Tucker, Abraham -- Oakley, Todd H -- Tokishita, Shinichi -- Aerts, Andrea -- Arnold, Georg J -- Basu, Malay Kumar -- Bauer, Darren J -- Caceres, Carla E -- Carmel, Liran -- Casola, Claudio -- Choi, Jeong-Hyeon -- Detter, John C -- Dong, Qunfeng -- Dusheyko, Serge -- Eads, Brian D -- Frohlich, Thomas -- Geiler-Samerotte, Kerry A -- Gerlach, Daniel -- Hatcher, Phil -- Jogdeo, Sanjuro -- Krijgsveld, Jeroen -- Kriventseva, Evgenia V -- Kultz, Dietmar -- Laforsch, Christian -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lopez, Jacqueline -- Manak, J Robert -- Muller, Jean -- Pangilinan, Jasmyn -- Patwardhan, Rupali P -- Pitluck, Samuel -- Pritham, Ellen J -- Rechtsteiner, Andreas -- Rho, Mina -- Rogozin, Igor B -- Sakarya, Onur -- Salamov, Asaf -- Schaack, Sarah -- Shapiro, Harris -- Shiga, Yasuhiro -- Skalitzky, Courtney -- Smith, Zachary -- Souvorov, Alexander -- Sung, Way -- Tang, Zuojian -- Tsuchiya, Dai -- Tu, Hank -- Vos, Harmjan -- Wang, Mei -- Wolf, Yuri I -- Yamagata, Hideo -- Yamada, Takuji -- Ye, Yuzhen -- Shaw, Joseph R -- Andrews, Justen -- Crease, Teresa J -- Tang, Haixu -- Lucas, Susan M -- Robertson, Hugh M -- Bork, Peer -- Koonin, Eugene V -- Zdobnov, Evgeny M -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- Lynch, Michael -- Boore, Jeffrey L -- P42 ES004699/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P42 ES004699-25/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P42ES004699/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES019324/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R24 GM078274/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R24 GM078274-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R24GM07827401/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Feb 4;331(6017):555-61. doi: 10.1126/science.1197761.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Indiana University, 915 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. jcolbour@indiana.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292972" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Chromosome Mapping ; Daphnia/*genetics/physiology ; *Ecosystem ; Environment ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Conversion ; Gene Duplication ; Gene Expression ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes ; Genes, Duplicate ; *Genome ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Multigene Family ; Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC1-alpha). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-alpha expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bostrom, Pontus -- Wu, Jun -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Korde, Anisha -- Ye, Li -- Lo, James C -- Rasbach, Kyle A -- Bostrom, Elisabeth Almer -- Choi, Jang Hyun -- Long, Jonathan Z -- Kajimura, Shingo -- Zingaretti, Maria Cristina -- Vind, Birgitte F -- Tu, Hua -- Cinti, Saverio -- Hojlund, Kurt -- Gygi, Steven P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK54477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK087853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK054477/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061562/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK031405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7382):463-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10777.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237023" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, Brown/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Adipose Tissue, White/*cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Respiration/drug effects ; Cells, Cultured ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; Energy Metabolism/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Exercise/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Hormones/metabolism/secretion ; Humans ; Insulin Resistance/physiology ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Ion Channels/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism ; Models, Animal ; Muscle Cells/metabolism ; Obesity/blood/chemically induced/prevention & control ; Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology ; Plasma/chemistry ; Subcutaneous Fat/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; *Thermogenesis/drug effects/genetics ; Trans-Activators/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Transcription Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-15
    Description: DHTKD1, a part of 2-ketoadipic acid dehydrogenase complex, is involved in lysine and tryptophan catabolism. Mutations in DHTKD1 block the metabolic pathway and cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria (AMOXAD), an autosomal recessive inborn metabolic disorder. In addition, a nonsense mutation in DHTKD1 that we identified previously causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2Q, one of the most common inherited neurological disorders affecting the peripheral nerves in the musculature. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism underlying CMT2Q remains elusive. Here, we show that Dhtkd1 –/– mice mimic the major aspects of CMT2 phenotypes, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy in the distal parts of limbs with motor and sensory dysfunctions, which are accompanied with decreased nerve conduction velocity. Moreover, DHTKD1 deficiency causes severe metabolic abnormalities and dramatically increased levels of 2-ketoadipic acid (2-KAA) and 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) in urine. Further studies revealed that both 2-KAA and 2-AAA could stimulate insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Subsequently, elevated insulin regulates myelin protein zero ( Mpz ) transcription in Schwann cells via upregulating the expression of early growth response 2 (Egr2), leading to myelin structure damage and axonal degeneration. Finally, 2-AAA-fed mice do reproduce phenotypes similar to CMT2Q phenotypes. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that loss of DHTKD1 causes CMT2Q-like phenotypes through dysregulation of Mpz mRNA and protein zero (P 0 ) which are closely associated with elevated DHTKD1 substrate and insulin levels. These findings further indicate an important role of metabolic disorders in addition to mitochondrial insufficiency in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies.
    Print ISSN: 0270-7306
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5549
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Aims To fully elucidate the clinicopathological features of breast carcinoma in sclerosing adenosis (SA-BC). Methods Clinical and histological characteristics of 206 SA-BCs from 180 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Immunohistochemical phenotype was examined. The clinicopathological relevance of the topographical pattern of SA-BCs was analysed. Results Overall, up to 46 patients (25.6%) had contralateral cancer, either SA associated or not. Of 99 cases who underwent core needle biopsy (CNB), 36 were underestimated as adenosis or atypical ductal hyperplasia at CNB, 5 invasive cases were misinterpreted as in situ carcinomas, whereas 4 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases were overdiagnosed as invasive carcinoma. Microscopically, 163 tumours were in situ, including 136 DCIS, 19 lobular carcinomas in situ (LCIS) and 8 mixed DCIS/LCIS; of these carcinomas in situ (CIS), 37 had microinvasion. The DCIS group exhibited low, intermediate and high grades in 53.7%, 34.6% and 11.8% of cases, respectively, mostly with solid (43.4%) or cribriform (41.9%) pattern. Forty out of 43 invasive cases were invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), mostly DCIS predominant. Immunophenotypically, luminal A phenotype was identified in 55.1%, 63.2% and 45.0% of DCIS, LCIS and IDC cases, respectively. Topographical type A group (carcinoma being entirely confined to SA, n=176) was characterised by smaller size, less invasiveness, lower grade and more frequency of luminal A immunophenotype compared with type B group (≥ 50% but not all of the carcinomatous lesion being located in SA, n=30) (all P〈0.05). Conclusions CIS, especially non-high-grade DCIS, represents the most common variant of SA-BC, and luminal A is the most predominant immunophenotype. CNB assessment might be challenging in some SA-BCs. The topographical pattern has great clinicopathological relevance. Careful evaluation of the contralateral breast and long-term follow-up for patients with SA-BC is necessary given its high prevalence of bilaterality.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9746
    Electronic ISSN: 1472-4146
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Nitrification ; Tropical soil ; Sustainable farming ; Nitrifier population ; Management practices ; Crop rotation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Samples of alluvial soil from mixed sandstone shale and slate and of Taiwan clay were collected from two sites, both managed under a similar crop rotation scheme. The fields were further divided into sections which were managed under either conventional farming or sustainable farming practices. When the soil samples were collected in April 1989, after 1 year of operation under conventional or sustainable practices, the nitrification activities of both soils managed under sustainable practices practices. The nitrifying activities in Taiwan clay samples collected in April 1993 which had been managed with chemical or with organic fertilizer were not significantly different. However, nitrifying activity in the alluvial soil was higher under sustainable than under conventional practices. Numbers of NH 4 + -oxidizing bacteria were not significantly different in any of the soil samples irrespective of the different management practices. In contrast, higher numbers of NO 2 - -oxidizing bacteria were detected in both soils managed sustainably. The results also indicated that the composition of NH 4 + -oxidizing bacteria differed in the alluvial soil when managed with different kinds of fertilizer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Nitrification ; Tropical soil ; Sustainable farming ; Nitrifier population ; Management practices ; Crop rotation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Samples of alluvial soil from mixed sandstone shale and slate and of Taiwan clay were collected from two sites, both managed under a similar crop rotation scheme. The fields were further divided into sections which were managed under either conventional farming or sustainable farming practices. When the soil samples were collected in April 1989, after 1 year of operation under conventional or sustainable practices, the nitrification activities of both soils managed under sustainable practices had improved dramatically compared to the conventional practices. The nitrifying activities in Taiwan clay samples collected in April 1993 which had been managed with chemical or with organic fertilizer were not significantly different. However, nitrifying activity in the alluvial soil was higher under sustainable than under conventional practices. Numbers of NH-oxidizing bacteria were not significantly different in any of the soil samples irrespective of the different management practices. In contrast, higher numbers of NO-oxidizing bacteria were detected in both soils managed sustainably. The results also indicated that the composition of NH-oxidizing bacteria differed in the alluvial soil when managed with different kinds of fertilizer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Key words Fish ; Membrane transport ; Minerals ; Nutrition ; Small intestine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intestinal inorganic phosphate transport and its regulation have not been studied in fish. In this study, we initially characterized the mechanisms of intestinal inorganic phosphate transport in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) then determined the effects of dietary phosphorus concentrations on intestinal inorganic phosphate uptake, plasma inorganic phosphate, and intestinal luminal inorganic phosphate concentrations. In 11-g trout, the saturable mechanism of brushborder inorganic phosphate uptake had a K t=1.2 mmol l−1 and a V max=0.22 nmol mg−1 min−1, while the diffusive component had a K d=0.012 min−1. Similar kinetic constants were obtained from 51-g trout, suggesting that development or size had little effect on transport. Tracer inorganic phosphate (1.18 mmol l−1) uptake was almost completely inhibited (〉95%) by 20 mmol l−1 unlabeled inorganic phosphate. Inorganic phosphate uptake (0.2 mmol l−1) was strongly inhibited (˜75% inhibition) by phosphonoformic acid, a competitive inhibitor of mammalian inorganic phosphate transport, as well as by the absence of Na+ (˜90% inhibition). Northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that the intestinal inorganic phosphate transporter in trout is not related to the cloned Na+ inorganic phosphate-II transporter of winter flounder. Intestinal luminal and plasma inorganic phosphate concentrations each increased with dietary P concentrations. Intestinal inorganic phosphate, but not proline, absorption rates decreased with dietary phosphorus concentrations. As in mammals and birds, a Na-dependent inorganic phosphate carrier that is tightly regulated by diet is present in trout small intestine.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of muscle foods 9 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Chicken breast at 8%, 17% and 25% levels was used to replace pork fat in a low-fat dry Chinese sausage. This replacement resulted in more lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation; also pH values declined (P〈0.05) during 4C storage. Cooking loss decreased with increasing chicken cantent in sausaga (P〈0.05). The addition of α-tocopherol to pork/chicken sausages delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation (P〈0.05) but did not influence pH value or cooking loss.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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