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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Uranium contamination poses a huge threat to human health due to its widespread use in the nuclear industry and weapons. We proposed a simple and convenient wet-state SERS method for uranyl detection based on the citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles. The effect of citrate on the detection performance was also discussed. By using the citrate as an internal reference to normalize the peak of uranyl, a quantitative analysis was achieved and a good linear relationship of uranyl concentration from 0.2 to 5 µM with the limit of detection of 60 nM was obtained. With its simplicity, convenience and cost-effectiveness, this method has great potential for the detection of other molecules also.
    Keywords: nuclear chemistry, spectroscopy, analytical chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Background/Aim: The family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is responsible for the maintenance of extracellular matrix component homeostasis and the association of MMP-1 genetic polymorphisms with personal susceptibility to prostate cancer has only been investigated in Turkish and Japan populations and never in Taiwan. In the current study, we aimed to examine the contribution of a polymorphism in the promoter region of MMP-1 to Taiwan prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The MMP-1 rs1799705 polymorphic genotypes were genotyped among 218 prostate cancer patients and 436 healthy controls by the typical polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology. Results: The percentages of 2G/2G, 1G/2G, and 1G/1G for MMP-1 -1607 genotypes were 36.2, 40.4 and 23.4% in the prostate cancer group and 33.7, 44.3, and 22.0% in the healthy control group (p trend=0.6362), respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for age and smoking status for those carrying 1G/2G and 1G/1G genotypes at MMP-1 -1607 were 0.84 (95%CI=0.55-1.21, p=0.3862) and 0.94 (95%CI=0.67-1.53, p=0.9586), respectively, compared to those carrying the wild-type 2G/2G genotype. Supporting these findings, the adjusted OR for those carrying the 1G allele at MMP-1 -1607 was 1.03 (95%CI=0.71-1.45, p=0.6910), compared to those carrying the wild-type 2G allele. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the polymorphic genotypes at MMP-1 promoter -1607 may play a major role in determining personal cancer susceptibility for prostate cancer in Taiwan.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: Polymer flooding is a promising chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, which realizes more efficient extraction in porous formations characterized with nanoscale porosity and complicated interfaces. Understanding the molecular mechanism of viscoelastic polymer EOR in nanopores is of great significance for the advancement of oil exploitation. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the detailed process of a viscoelastic polymer displacing oil at the atomic scale. We found that the interactions between polymer chains and oil provide an additional pulling effect on extracting the residual oil trapped in dead-end nanopores, which plays a key role in increasing the oil displacement efficiency. Our results also demonstrate that the oil displacement ability of polymer can be reinforced with the increasing chain length and viscoelasticity. In particular, a polymer with longer chain length exhibits stronger elastic property, which enhances the foregoing pulling effect. These findings can help to enrich our understanding on the molecular mechanism of polymer enhanced oil recovery and provide guidance for oil extraction engineering.
    Keywords: nanotechnology, chemical engineering, chemical physics
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-06-15
    Description: Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly of the ancient bacterial genome could be achieved through shotgun sequencing alone. The ancient M. leprae sequences were compared with those of 11 modern strains, representing diverse genotypes and geographic origins. The comparisons revealed remarkable genomic conservation during the past 1000 years, a European origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human pathogen evolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schuenemann, Verena J -- Singh, Pushpendra -- Mendum, Thomas A -- Krause-Kyora, Ben -- Jager, Gunter -- Bos, Kirsten I -- Herbig, Alexander -- Economou, Christos -- Benjak, Andrej -- Busso, Philippe -- Nebel, Almut -- Boldsen, Jesper L -- Kjellstrom, Anna -- Wu, Huihai -- Stewart, Graham R -- Taylor, G Michael -- Bauer, Peter -- Lee, Oona Y-C -- Wu, Houdini H T -- Minnikin, David E -- Besra, Gurdyal S -- Tucker, Katie -- Roffey, Simon -- Sow, Samba O -- Cole, Stewart T -- Nieselt, Kay -- Krause, Johannes -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 12;341(6142):179-83. doi: 10.1126/science.1238286. Epub 2013 Jun 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, 72070 Tubingen, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23765279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bone and Bones/microbiology ; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics/isolation & purification ; Denmark ; Endemic Diseases/history ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genome, Bacterial/*genetics ; Great Britain ; History, Medieval ; Humans ; Leprosy/epidemiology/history/*microbiology ; Mycobacterium leprae/*classification/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Mycolic Acids/chemistry ; Phylogeny ; Sweden ; Tooth/microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: In conventional attenuated viral vaccines, immunogenicity is often suboptimal. Here we present a systematic approach for vaccine development that eliminates interferon (IFN)–modulating functions genome-wide while maintaining virus replication fitness. We applied a quantitative high-throughput genomics system to influenza A virus that simultaneously measured the replication fitness and IFN sensitivity of mutations across the entire genome. By incorporating eight IFN-sensitive mutations, we generated a hyper–interferon-sensitive (HIS) virus as a vaccine candidate. HIS virus is highly attenuated in IFN-competent hosts but able to induce transient IFN responses, elicits robust humoral and cellular immune responses, and provides protection against homologous and heterologous viral challenges. Our approach, which attenuates the virus and promotes immune responses concurrently, is broadly applicable for vaccine development against other pathogens.
    Keywords: Genetics, Microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Keywords: carcinoma ; GENES ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; WOMEN ; PATHOGENESIS ; inflammation ; infertility ; ORIGIN ; HOSPITAL DISCHARGE DIAGNOSIS ; FERTILITY DRUGS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. METHODS: Data from 13 ovarian cancer case-control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models. FINDINGS: 13 226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20.2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6.2%] of 13 226 controls, odds ratio 3.05, 95% CI 2.43-3.84, p〈0.0001), low-grade serous (31 [9.2%] of 336 cases, 2.11, 1.39-3.20, p〈0.0001), and endometrioid invasive ovarian cancers (169 [13.9%] of 1220 cases, 2.04, 1.67-2.48, p〈0.0001). No association was noted between endometriosis and risk of mucinous (31 [6.0%] of 516 cases, 1.02, 0.69-1.50, p=0.93) or high-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer (261 [7.1%] of 3659 cases, 1.13, 0.97-1.32, p=0.13), or borderline tumours of either subtype (serous 103 [9.0%] of 1140 cases, 1.20, 0.95-1.52, p=0.12, and mucinous 65 [8.5%] of 767 cases, 1.12, 0.84-1.48, p=0.45). INTERPRETATION: Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis. Future efforts should focus on understanding the mechanisms that might lead to malignant transformation of endometriosis so as to help identify subsets of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. FUNDING: Ovarian Cancer Research Fund, National Institutes of Health, California Cancer Research Program, California Department of Health Services, Lon V Smith Foundation, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany, Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research, German Cancer Research Centre, Eve Appeal, Oak Foundation, UK National Institute of Health Research, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Cancer Council Tasmania, Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Mermaid 1, Danish Cancer Society, and Roswell Park Alliance Foundation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22361336
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-05-19
    Description: Members of the opioid receptor family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are found throughout the peripheral and central nervous system, where they have key roles in nociception and analgesia. Unlike the 'classical' opioid receptors, delta, kappa and mu (delta-OR, kappa-OR and mu-OR), which were delineated by pharmacological criteria in the 1970s and 1980s, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor (NOP, also known as ORL-1) was discovered relatively recently by molecular cloning and characterization of an orphan GPCR. Although it shares high sequence similarity with classical opioid GPCR subtypes ( approximately 60%), NOP has a markedly distinct pharmacology, featuring activation by the endogenous peptide N/OFQ, and unique selectivity for exogenous ligands. Here we report the crystal structure of human NOP, solved in complex with the peptide mimetic antagonist compound-24 (C-24) (ref. 4), revealing atomic details of ligand-receptor recognition and selectivity. Compound-24 mimics the first four amino-terminal residues of the NOP-selective peptide antagonist UFP-101, a close derivative of N/OFQ, and provides important clues to the binding of these peptides. The X-ray structure also shows substantial conformational differences in the pocket regions between NOP and the classical opioid receptors kappa (ref. 5) and mu (ref. 6), and these are probably due to a small number of residues that vary between these receptors. The NOP-compound-24 structure explains the divergent selectivity profile of NOP and provides a new structural template for the design of NOP ligands.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356928/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356928/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thompson, Aaron A -- Liu, Wei -- Chun, Eugene -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Wu, Huixian -- Vardy, Eyal -- Huang, Xi-Ping -- Trapella, Claudio -- Guerrini, Remo -- Calo, Girolamo -- Roth, Bryan L -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Stevens, Raymond C -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197-08/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204-08/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170-03/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA27170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 16;485(7398):395-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11085.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22596163" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Biomimetic Materials/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Narcotic Antagonists ; Opioid Peptides/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Piperidines/*chemistry/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Opioid/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Receptors, Opioid, kappa/chemistry/metabolism ; Spiro Compounds/*chemistry/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-03-29
    Description: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world. However, the complex polyploid nature of its genome makes genetic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The A genome, as a basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploid wheats, for example, T. turgidum (AABB), T. timopheevii (AAGG) and T. zhukovskyi (AAGGA(m)A(m)), is central to wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. The progenitor species of the A genome is the diploid wild einkorn wheat T. urartu, which resembles cultivated wheat more extensively than do Aegilops speltoides (the ancestor of the B genome) and Ae. tauschii (the donor of the D genome), especially in the morphology and development of spike and seed. Here we present the generation, assembly and analysis of a whole-genome shotgun draft sequence of the T. urartu genome. We identified protein-coding gene models, performed genome structure analyses and assessed its utility for analysing agronomically important genes and for developing molecular markers. Our T. urartu genome assembly provides a diploid reference for analysis of polyploid wheat genomes and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ling, Hong-Qing -- Zhao, Shancen -- Liu, Dongcheng -- Wang, Junyi -- Sun, Hua -- Zhang, Chi -- Fan, Huajie -- Li, Dong -- Dong, Lingli -- Tao, Yong -- Gao, Chuan -- Wu, Huilan -- Li, Yiwen -- Cui, Yan -- Guo, Xiaosen -- Zheng, Shusong -- Wang, Biao -- Yu, Kang -- Liang, Qinsi -- Yang, Wenlong -- Lou, Xueyuan -- Chen, Jie -- Feng, Mingji -- Jian, Jianbo -- Zhang, Xiaofei -- Luo, Guangbin -- Jiang, Ying -- Liu, Junjie -- Wang, Zhaobao -- Sha, Yuhui -- Zhang, Bairu -- Wu, Huajun -- Tang, Dingzhong -- Shen, Qianhua -- Xue, Pengya -- Zou, Shenhao -- Wang, Xiujie -- Liu, Xin -- Wang, Famin -- Yang, Yanping -- An, Xueli -- Dong, Zhenying -- Zhang, Kunpu -- Zhang, Xiangqi -- Luo, Ming-Cheng -- Dvorak, Jan -- Tong, Yiping -- Wang, Jian -- Yang, Huanming -- Li, Zhensheng -- Wang, Daowen -- Zhang, Aimin -- Wang, Jun -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 4;496(7443):87-90. doi: 10.1038/nature11997. Epub 2013 Mar 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535596" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Brachypodium/genetics ; Crops, Agricultural/classification/genetics ; Diploidy ; Genetic Markers/genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oryza/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Sorghum/genetics ; Synteny/genetics ; Triticum/classification/*genetics ; Zea mays/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2010-12-15
    Description: A Fermi gas of atoms with resonant interactions is predicted to obey universal hydrodynamics, in which the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients are universal functions of the density and temperature. At low temperatures, the viscosity has a universal quantum scale h n, where n is the density and h is Planck's constant h divided by 2pi, whereas at high temperatures the natural scale is p(T)(3)/h(2), where p(T) is the thermal momentum. We used breathing mode damping to measure the shear viscosity at low temperature. At high temperature T, we used anisotropic expansion of the cloud to find the viscosity, which exhibits precise T(3/2) scaling. In both experiments, universal hydrodynamic equations including friction and heating were used to extract the viscosity. We estimate the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density and compare it with that of a perfect fluid.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cao, C -- Elliott, E -- Joseph, J -- Wu, H -- Petricka, J -- Schafer, T -- Thomas, J E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jan 7;331(6013):58-61. doi: 10.1126/science.1195219. Epub 2010 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21148347" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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