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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-21
    Description: The hidden (H) quantum state in 1T-TaS 2 has sparked considerable interest in the field of correlated electron systems. Here, we investigate ultrafast switches to stable H charge density wave (H-CDW) states observed in 1T-TaS 2– x Se x , with x = 0 and 0.5 crystals, upon excitation with a single femtosecond laser pulse. In situ cooling transmission electron microscopy observations, initiated by a single femtosecond laser pumping with a low fluence, reveal a clear transition from a commensurate CDW phase ( q C ) to a new CDW order with q H = (1 – ) q C for the H-CDW state ( = 1/9) accompanied by an evident phase separation. H-CDW domain relaxation then occurs and yields a stable metallic phase under a high-fluence excitation. Furthermore, electrical resistivity measurements show that the notable drop in x = 0 and 0.5 samples associated with the appearance of H-CDW states depend on laser fluence and temperature. These results potentially provide a new perspective on the photodoping mechanism for the emergence of H-CDW states in the 1T-TaS 2– x Se x family.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-15
    Description: Semiconductors are essential materials that affect our everyday life in the modern world. Two-dimensional semiconductors with high mobility and moderate bandgap are particularly attractive today because of their potential application in fast, low-power, and ultrasmall/thin electronic devices. We investigate the electronic structures of a new layered air-stable oxide semiconductor, Bi 2 O 2 Se, with ultrahigh mobility (~2.8 x 10 5 cm 2 /V⋅s at 2.0 K) and moderate bandgap (~0.8 eV). Combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we mapped out the complete band structures of Bi 2 O 2 Se with key parameters (for example, effective mass, Fermi velocity, and bandgap). The unusual spatial uniformity of the bandgap without undesired in-gap states on the sample surface with up to ~50% defects makes Bi 2 O 2 Se an ideal semiconductor for future electronic applications. In addition, the structural compatibility between Bi 2 O 2 Se and interesting perovskite oxides (for example, cuprate high–transition temperature superconductors and commonly used substrate material SrTiO 3 ) further makes heterostructures between Bi 2 O 2 Se and these oxides possible platforms for realizing novel physical phenomena, such as topological superconductivity, Josephson junction field-effect transistor, new superconducting optoelectronics, and novel lasers.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (EBV + -DLBLs) tend to occur in immunocompromised patients, such as the elderly or those undergoing solid organ transplantation. The pathogenesis and genomic characteristics of EBV + -DLBLs are largely unknown because of the limited availability of human samples and lack of experimental animal models. We observed the development of 25 human EBV + -DLBLs during the engraftment of gastric adenocarcinomas into immunodeficient mice. An integrated genomic analysis of the human-derived EBV + -DLBLs revealed enrichment of mutations in Rho pathway genes, including RHPN2 , and Rho pathway transcriptomic activation. Targeting the Rho pathway using a Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, fasudil, markedly decreased tumor growth in EBV + -DLBL patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Thus, alterations in the Rho pathway appear to contribute to EBV-induced lymphomagenesis in immunosuppressed environments.
    Keywords: Immunobiology and Immunotherapy, Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs have been widely implemented as a promising tool to conserve ecosystems while facilitating socioeconomic development. However, the underlying pathways (or processes) through which PES programs affect socioeconomic outcomes remain elusive, and existing literature provides little guidance to quantify them. By integrating linkages among PES programs, livelihood activities, and socioeconomic outcomes, we develop a framework to reveal pathways from PES programs to socioeconomic outcomes. We empirically demonstrate the framework’s operationalization and uncover the pathways that lead to unexpected negative effects of two important PES programs on participating households’ income. With improved understanding of the pathways (for example, the programs decreased income through reducing crop production), we provide recommendations to enhance the PES programs’ outcomes in our demonstration site and beyond. Our study highlights the finding that elucidating the pathways from PES programs to their outcomes can help identify specific strategies to achieve ecosystem conservation and socioeconomic development simultaneously.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-06
    Description: Background: SNPs in the promoter region of miRNAs have been reported to be associated with cancer prognosis. Our previous study found that miR-146b had a strong correlation with the stage classification of gastric cancer and contributed to tumor progression. The current study was aimed at investigating whether an SNP located in the promoter region of miR-146b could affect the survival rate of gastric cancer. Methods: Using bioinformatics tools, we identified one SNP (rs1536309) that is located in the miR-146b promoter. We genotyped this SNP site to assess its association with gastric cancer prognosis in 940 cases. Results: We found that the dominant model of miR-146b rs1536309 was associated with a higher survival rate of gastric cancer. The association remained significant in the subgroup analysis by age (≤60), sex (male), tumor size (≤5 cm), histologic type (diffuse), lymph node metastasis (N0), distant metastasis (M0), and TNM stage (I/II). Conclusions: Our results suggested that the miR-146b rs1536309 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for the prognosis of gastric cancer. Impact: This is the first evidence showing that patients carrying the miR-146b-5p rs1536309 CC/CT genotypes exhibited better survival than those carrying the TT genotype, suggesting the protective effect of the C allele in the prognosis of gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(7); 822–8. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-04-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Hong -- Wright, Jim A -- Gundry, Stephen W -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 18;484(7394):318. doi: 10.1038/484318b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22517153" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; *Drinking Water/standards ; Humans ; *Rural Population ; *Water Quality/standards
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-07-18
    Description: The inflammasome regulates the release of caspase activation-dependent cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-18 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). By studying HMGB1 release mechanisms, here we identify a role for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR, also known as EIF2AK2) in inflammasome activation. Exposure of macrophages to inflammasome agonists induced PKR autophosphorylation. PKR inactivation by genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition severely impaired inflammasome activation in response to double-stranded RNA, ATP, monosodium urate, adjuvant aluminium, rotenone, live Escherichia coli, anthrax lethal toxin, DNA transfection and Salmonella typhimurium infection. PKR deficiency significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-18 and HMGB1 in E. coli-induced peritonitis. PKR physically interacts with several inflammasome components, including NOD-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), NLRP1, NLR family CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and broadly regulates inflammasome activation. PKR autophosphorylation in a cell-free system with recombinant NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC, also known as PYCARD) and pro-caspase-1 reconstitutes inflammasome activity. These results show a crucial role for PKR in inflammasome activation, and indicate that it should be possible to pharmacologically target this molecule to treat inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163918/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163918/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Ben -- Nakamura, Takahisa -- Inouye, Karen -- Li, Jianhua -- Tang, Yiting -- Lundback, Peter -- Valdes-Ferrer, Sergio I -- Olofsson, Peder S -- Kalb, Thomas -- Roth, Jesse -- Zou, Yongrui -- Erlandsson-Harris, Helena -- Yang, Huan -- Ting, Jenny P-Y -- Wang, Haichao -- Andersson, Ulf -- Antoine, Daniel J -- Chavan, Sangeeta S -- Hotamisligil, Gokhan S -- Tracey, Kevin J -- DK052539/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- G0700654/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 DK052539/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM057226/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM62508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488(7413):670-4. doi: 10.1038/nature11290.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA. blu@nshs.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22801494" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism ; Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigens, Bacterial/pharmacology ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism ; Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology ; CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/metabolism ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Crystallins/metabolism ; Escherichia coli/immunology/physiology ; Escherichia coli Infections/immunology/metabolism ; Female ; HMGB1 Protein/blood/*secretion ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/agonists/*metabolism ; Interleukin-18/blood ; Interleukin-1beta/blood ; Interleukin-6/analysis/blood ; Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects/metabolism ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Peritonitis/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; RNA, Double-Stranded/immunology/pharmacology ; Rotenone/pharmacology ; Salmonella Infections/immunology/metabolism ; Salmonella typhimurium/immunology/physiology ; Transfection ; Uric Acid/pharmacology ; eIF-2 Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-10-02
    Description: Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage MGWAS based on deep shotgun sequencing of the gut microbial DNA from 345 Chinese individuals. We identified and validated approximately 60,000 type-2-diabetes-associated markers and established the concept of a metagenomic linkage group, enabling taxonomic species-level analyses. MGWAS analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes were characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis, a decrease in the abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, as well as an enrichment of other microbial functions conferring sulphate reduction and oxidative stress resistance. An analysis of 23 additional individuals demonstrated that these gut microbial markers might be useful for classifying type 2 diabetes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qin, Junjie -- Li, Yingrui -- Cai, Zhiming -- Li, Shenghui -- Zhu, Jianfeng -- Zhang, Fan -- Liang, Suisha -- Zhang, Wenwei -- Guan, Yuanlin -- Shen, Dongqian -- Peng, Yangqing -- Zhang, Dongya -- Jie, Zhuye -- Wu, Wenxian -- Qin, Youwen -- Xue, Wenbin -- Li, Junhua -- Han, Lingchuan -- Lu, Donghui -- Wu, Peixian -- Dai, Yali -- Sun, Xiaojuan -- Li, Zesong -- Tang, Aifa -- Zhong, Shilong -- Li, Xiaoping -- Chen, Weineng -- Xu, Ran -- Wang, Mingbang -- Feng, Qiang -- Gong, Meihua -- Yu, Jing -- Zhang, Yanyan -- Zhang, Ming -- Hansen, Torben -- Sanchez, Gaston -- Raes, Jeroen -- Falony, Gwen -- Okuda, Shujiro -- Almeida, Mathieu -- LeChatelier, Emmanuelle -- Renault, Pierre -- Pons, Nicolas -- Batto, Jean-Michel -- Zhang, Zhaoxi -- Chen, Hua -- Yang, Ruifu -- Zheng, Weimou -- Li, Songgang -- Yang, Huanming -- Wang, Jian -- Ehrlich, S Dusko -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Pedersen, Oluf -- Kristiansen, Karsten -- Wang, Jun -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 4;490(7418):55-60. doi: 10.1038/nature11450. Epub 2012 Sep 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023125" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Asian Continental Ancestry Group ; Butyrates/metabolism ; China/ethnology ; Cohort Studies ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type ; 2/classification/complications/*microbiology/physiopathology ; Feces/microbiology ; Genetic Linkage/genetics ; Genetic Markers ; Genome-Wide Association Study/*methods ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Intestines/*microbiology ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics ; Metagenome/*genetics ; Metagenomics/*methods ; Opportunistic Infections/complications/microbiology ; Reference Standards ; Sulfates/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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