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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Molecular Biology ; Biomedicine ; Molecular Medicine ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Salivary Diagnostics using Purified Nucleic Acids -- RNA Sequencing Analysis of Salivary Extracellular RNA -- Qualitative and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Oral Fluids in Health and Periodontal Disease by Mass Spectrometry -- Antioxidant Micronutrients and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers -- NMR-Based Metabolomics of Oral Biofluids -- Gene Therapy of Salivary Diseases -- The Oral Microbiota in Health and Disease: An Overview of Molecular Findings -- Microbial Community Profiling using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) -- Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequences using the QIIME Software Package -- Adhesion of Yeast and Bacteria to Oral Surfaces -- Quantitative Analysis of Periodontal Pathogens by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction -- Methods to Study Antagonistic Activities Among Oral Bacteria -- Natural Transformation of Oral Streptococci by Use of Synthetic Pheromones -- Markerless Genome Editing in Competent Streptococci -- Tools and Strategies for Analysis of Genome-Wide and Gene-Specific DNA Methylation Patterns -- Generating Multiple Base-Resolution DNA Methylomes using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing -- A Protocol for the Determination of the Methylation Status of Gingival Tissue DNA at Specific CpG Islands -- Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Periodontal Cells and Tissues -- Differential Expression and Functional Analysis of High-Throughput -Omics Data Using Open Source Tools -- Exploring Genome-Wide Expression Profiles Using Machine Learning Techniques -- Embryonic Explant Culture: Studying Effects of Regulatory Molecules on Gene Expression in Craniofacial Tissues -- Oral Epithelial Cell Culture Model for Studying the Pathogenesis of Chronic Inflammatory Disease -- Fabrication and Characterization of Decullularized Periodontal Ligament Cell Sheet Constructs -- A Method to Isolate, Purify and Characterize Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells -- Constructing Tissue Microarrays: Protocols and Methods Considering Potential Advantages and Disadvantages for Downstream Use -- Growing Adipose-Derived Stem Cells under Serum-Free Conditions -- Quantitative Real-Time Gene profiling of Human Alveolar Osteoblasts -- Proteomic Analysis of Dental Tissue Microsamples -- Characterization, Quantification and Visualization of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps
    Abstract: This second edition volume presents a selection of cellular and molecular techniques that can be adapted to cover a range of applications and diseases. The book is divided into three sections: saliva and oral diseases, molecular biosciences, and cell and tissues. The first section contains chapters that discuss proteomic analyses by mass spectrometry and NMR-based metabolomics that can be used to not only study saliva, but also to assess other oral fluids such as gingival crevicular fluid. The second section contains chapters that profile oral microbial communities, quantitative real-time PCR, and adhesion of yeast and bacteria to oral surfaces. The third section deals with a range of approaches that enable the behavior of cells and tissues in both health and disease to be analyzed at the molecular level. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and comprehensive, Oral Biology: Molecular Techniques and Applications, Second Edition is a useful resource for oral biologists at all levels (students, early career researchers, and experienced veterans), and it provides a ready reference to new techniques and approaches that can be used to answer numerous specific scientific questions that may lead to a deeper understanding and treatments of oral diseases
    Pages: XIV, 503 p. 92 illus., 54 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 2nd ed. 2017.
    ISBN: 9781493966851
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  • 2
    Unknown
    Basel : Karger
    Call number: L201:4
    Notes: Reprint of Cytogenetic and Genome Research (ISSN 1424-8581), Vol. 139, No. 3, 2013.
    Pages: 87 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9783318024128
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    L201:4 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Chuanxiong is a Chinese herb that has been used widely in China to treat vascular disorders. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the major components purified from chuanxiong. Many studies have demonstrated that TMP is effective in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanism of action by which TMP exerts relaxation in vascular vessels remains unclear.2. Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasopressor synthesised by endothelial cells both in culture and in vivo. The aims of the present study were to test the hypothesis that TMP may alter strain-induced ET-1 secretion and to identify the putative underlying signalling pathways in endothelial cells.3. We showed that TMP inhibits strain-induced ET-1 secretion. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine also inhibits the strain-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. Furthermore, pretreating cells with TMP or the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-cysteine decreased strain-induced increases in ET-1 secretion and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Using a reporter gene assay, TMP and N-acetyl-cysteine were demonstrated to also attenuate the strain-induced activity of the activator protein-1 reporter.4. In summary, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that TMP inhibits strain-induced ET-1 gene expression, in part by interfering with the ERK1/2 pathway via attenuation of ROS formation. Thus, the present study provides important new insights into the molecular pathways that may contribute to the proposed beneficial effects of TMP in the vascular system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 129 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Signal transduction of many intracellular events is initiated by a minute influx of calcium ions into the cells, resulting in the formation of calcium-calmodulin complex and cAMP. Because zinc appears to have an inhibitory effect on a number of tissue reactions, it is postulated that this occurs through modulation of intracellular calcium influx. To test the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of zinc are mediated through the calcium calmodulin-cAMP pathway, zinc was administered by various routes to five groups of nude mice (control, intragastric, intraperitoneal. intradermal and oral groups), and calmodulin and cAMP concentrations were measured in the cytosol of epidermal cells. Calmodulin levels decreased significantly in the groups given intraperitoneal zinc (P〉0.025) and intradermal zinc (P〉0.001) injections. Significant elevations of cAMP levels were noted with intradermal zinc (P〉0.025). Overall, the relationship between calmodulin and cAMP appeared to be inversely logarithmic, with the lowest calmodulin levels associated with the highest cAMP concentrations. In addition, there was a significant trend towards a smaller calmodulin/cAMP ratio in all zinc-treated groups, except the mice fed dietary zinc. These results appear to correlate with tissue zinc levels obtained with these various forms of zinc administration. Our results therefore indicate that there is a reciprocity between epidermal calmodulin and cAMP levels, which may be modulated by external factors such as zinc.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), also known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-phosphorylase b phosphotransferase, integrates multiple calcium/calmodulin-dependent signalling pathways, including those involved in cell migration and cell proliferation, while coupling these pathways to glycogenolysis and ATP-dependent phosphorylation, thus ensuring continuing energy supply for these activities. Objectives Our laboratory recently reported correlation of elevated PhK activity with psoriatic activity. This study further evaluates the significance of drug-induced suppression of PhK activity on psoriatic activity. Patients and methods PhK activity was assayed in four groups, each with 10 patients: (i) active untreated psoriasis; (ii) resolving psoriasis treated by calcipotriol (Dovonex®, Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.), a vitamin D3 analogue and an indirect inhibitor of PhK; (iii) curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a selective PhK inhibitor; and (iv) 10 normal non-psoriatic subjects. Results PhK activity in units mg−1 protein was highest in active untreated psoriasis (1204 ± 804·3; mean ± SD), lower in the calcipotriol-treated group (550·7 ± 192·9), lower in curcumin-treated group (207·2 ± 97·6), and lowest in normal skin (105·4 ± 44·6). One-way analysis of variance performed on log-transformed PhK activity measure showed significant differences among the four groups, F3,36 = 48·79, P 〈 0·0001. Decreased PhK activity in curcumin-and calcipotriol-treated psoriasis was associated with corresponding decreases in keratinocyte transferrin receptor (TRR) expression, severity of parakeratosis and density of epidermal CD8+ T cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that drug-induced suppression of PhK activity is associated with resolution of psoriatic activity as assessed by clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria, and support the hypothesis that effective antipsoriatic activity may be achieved through modulation of PhK activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Host immunity has been suspected of playing a role in recurrent herpes simplex. In this preliminary ultrastructural study of two patients with acute herpetic eruption, it was noted that the keratinocytes exhibiting the most severe damage are those adjacent to large granular lymphocytes. In contrast, many keratinocytes filled with viral particles of herpes simplex show little or no signs of keratinocyte damage. These observations suggest that in recurrent herpes simplex the epidermal damage may be due, at least in part, to cell-mediated host immunity as well as to the viral infection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been observed that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of topical steroids in psoriasis are counteracted by increasing instability of the disease, with rebound phenomena associated with the cessation of these drugs. We report the occurrence of multi-layered fragmentation and disorganization of the basal laminae in active, untreated psoriatic lesions, resolving and uninvolved, inadvertently steroid-treated psoriatic skin, as well as in a variety of non-psoriatic dermatoses treated with fluorinated topical steroids for prolonged periods. These changes, which were associated with a moderate to severe loss of dermal collagen, were not found in untreated and treated psoriatic controls, with or without concomitant α1-antitrypsin deficiency, who had not received steroids, suggesting that they were probably the consequence of prolonged fluorinated steroid use. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the largest number of layers (10-15) of fragmented basal laminae was noted in the patients who had received fluorinated steroids for 6 years or more, while those on 4 years or less of fluorinated steroid therapy exhibited only three to seven layers of fragmented basal laminae. In psoriatic lesions, the fragmentation of the basal lamina was associated with the presence of basal keratinocyte herniations (BKH), the frequency of which has been shown to parallel clinical psoriatic activity. The persistence of these electron-microscopic markers of psoriatic activity (i.e. BKH) in psoriatic plaques treated with prolonged fluorinated steroids suggests that loss of integrity of the basement membrane, as indicated by the presence of multi-layered fragmentation of the basal lamina, may account for the instability of the psoriatic lesions treated with prolonged topical fluorinated steroids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Although the ultrastructural appearance of mitochondrial crowding after ischemic injury has been reported in myocardial and skeletal muscles, the mechanism for this is not clear. Thirty-five branches of the mesenteric arteries removed from eight patients during surgery were examined by electron microscopy: 22 had ligatures applied 30 minutes to 4 hours before resection, 13 had no ligatures. The number of mitochondria per smooth muscle cell was significantly increased in the arterial segments under the ligature (ligated site) and immediately distal to the ligature (distal site) compared with the nonligated segments (control site). Mitochondria in ischemic cells were also noted to be swollen compared with those in nonischemic cells. Within the ligated site, paradoxically, the severity of ischemic injury correlated inversely with the increase in mitochondrial counts. In conclusion, mitochondria crowding after ischemic injury is due to both swelling and an increase in the number of organelles, and appears as early as 30 min after injury. The results also suggest that, in severely ischemic sites, cells capable of rapidly increasing their mitochondrial count may suffer less ischemic injury.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To clarify the role of immune mechanisms in the vascular response to injury in humans, the sequence, subset and activation status of lymphocytes infiltrating acutely ischemic arteries were studied. Thirty-five branches of mesenteric arteries removed from 8 men during surgery—22 of which were ligated for 0.5–4 hours—were examined ultrastructurally and immunocytochemically. The ligated arteries showed early intimal infiltration by activated T-cells, the predominant subset of which was dendritic, γ/δ T-cell receptor (TCR)-bearing and phenotyped CD3+, CD4-, and CD8-. Their activated status is shown by strong HLA-DR positivity, expression of interleukin-2 receptors, increased expression of lymphocyte function antigen-1, and frequent lymphocyte-macrophage interactions. Intimal macrophage infiltration consisted of single cells in the earlier biopsy specimens and clusters of cells in the later ones. These findings suggest that an early immune mechanism initiated by activated γ/δ dendritic T-cells, and amplified later by macrophages, may play a pivotal role in the inflammatory response after acute arterial injury.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It is currently unexplained why zinc deficiency should result in a cutaneous eruption of such a distinctive and characteristic distribution (acrodermatitis), affecting the groin, periorificial surfaces and periungual areas of fingers and toes. In this study, we provide ultrastructural evidence suggestive of excessive damage of the epidermis by neutrophils, with other features resembling tissue damage from free radicals. We propose that these changes are consistent with a deficiency of superoxide dismutase, a zinc metalloenzyme, which is mainly responsible for neutralizing the destructive effects of the reactive oxygen species released by neutrophils. The various zymosans on many yeast cells, including Candida, activate complement, resulting in the generation of C5a, a potent chemattractant for neutrophils, and the location of the eruption in the characteristic sites in zinc deficiency may be explained by the natural occurrence of Candida albicans in these areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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