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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Keywords: Angioneogenesis Cathepsin B Enzyme overlay membrane In situ zymography Oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The analysis of the invasion front of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has revealed a fundamental invasion-associated remodelling of the extracellular matrix as the result of a complex regulated interplay of matrix synthesis and matrix degradation. Cysteine proteinases, in particular cathepsin B, are implicated in tumour invasion in vivo and in vitro and are thought to be important mediators of metastasis. An in situ zymographic assay based on enzyme overlay membranes (EOMs) was established to define the tissue localisation of cathepsin B activity in OSCC. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we present a double-labelling method for the rapid and reproducible simultaneous detection of cathepsin B-like activity and cellular or extracellular antigens based on an EOM and immunofluorescence technique on frozen sections. Applying this method, cathepsin B-like activity was mainly found in vascular structures within the invasive front of OSCC. Therefore, the results suggest a particular pathogenic role of cathepsin B in tumour angioneogenesis. The method can simply be transferred to other enzymes and can be recommended for more extensive studies of proteolytic activity in human malignancies.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-3940
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Laminin-5 ; Orales Plattenepithelkarzinom ; Basalmembran ; Hemidesmosomen ; Key words Laminin-5 ; Oral squamous cell carcinoma ; Basement membrane ; Hemidesmosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: The basement membrane molecule laminin forms a family of proteins. Laminin-5 was identified as key protein in the anchoring filaments of the basement membrane. The anchoring filaments connect the basement membrane to the epithelial cells and together form the epithelial adhesion complex. Disturbances in the epithelial adhesion complex result in subepithelial blistering dermatosis. Autoantibodies against laminin-5 are found in cicatricial pemphigoid. Mutations in genes of laminin-5 with loss of the protein cause epidermolysis bullosa Herlitz. It can be determined during prenatal genetic diagnostic testing. Laminin-5 supports migration of keratinocytes and forms the basis for migrating keratinocytes in oral wound healing. Positive re-epithelialization via laminin-5 has been the subject of experimental studies. Oral squamous cell carcinomas are found to have a focal loss of laminin-5 in conjunction with a loss of the cellular receptor, and increased synthesis of laminin-5 by budding tumor cells has been observed along with deposition of the protein in the stroma. As a result of these observations laminin-5 has been suggested as a route of invasion. Quantitative assessment of this phenomenon and the modulation of laminin-5-tumor cell interaction offer new and hopeful means of describing and affecting the invasive behaviour of oral squamous carcinoma.
    Notes: Das Basalmembranmolekül Laminin bildet eine Molekülfamilie. Laminin-5 wurde als Schlüsselprotein der Ankerfilamente der Basalmembran identifiziert. Die Ankerfilamente verbinden die Basalmembran mit den Hemidesmosomen der Epithelzellen und bilden mit ihnen gemeinsam den epithelialen Adhäsionskomplex. Störungen des epithelialen Adhäsionskomplexes führen zu subepithelialen blasenbildenden Dermatosen. Autoantikörper gegen Laminin-5 werden beim vernarbenden Pemphigoid der Schleimhäute gefunden. Mutationen in den Genen des Laminin-5 mit Verlust des Proteins sind die Ursache der Epidermolysis bullosa Herlitz und bereits der pränatalen genetischen Diagnostik zugänglich. Laminin-5 fördert die Migration von Keratinozyten und stellt die Unterlage für migrierende Keratinozyten im Rahmen der oralen Wundheilung dar. Ob sich die Reepithelialisierung via Laminin-5 positiv beeinflussen läßt, ist Gegenstand experimenteller Studien. In oralen Plattenepithelkarzinomen findet sich parallel zu einem regionalen Verlust von Laminin-5 in der Basalmembranregion und des zellulären Rezeptors eine gesteigerte Synthese von Laminin-5 durch invasive Karzinomzellkomplexe mit Deposition des Proteins im benachbarten Stroma. Infolge dieser Beobachtungen wurde Laminin-5 als eine mögliche Leitschiene für die Invasion benannt. Die quantitative Bewertung dieses Phänomens und die Modulation der Laminin-5-Tumorzell-Wechselwirkung bieten einen neuen und hoffnungsvollen Ansatz zur Beschreibung und Beeinflussung des Invasionsverhaltens oraler Plattenepithelkarzinome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 1 (1983), S. 575-578 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Since the principal concern of the food industry is the production, modification, and improvement of biological materials, it is reasonable to expect biotechnology to have major applications in this area. Indeed, practices such as enzyme production and use, starter culture strain development, and ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: triglyceride lipase ; proenzyme ; molecular replacement ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A neutral lipase from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar has been crystallized in both its proenzyme and mature forms. Although the latter crystallizes readily and produces a variety of crystal forms, only one was found to be suitable for X-ray studies. It is monoclinic (C2, a = 92.8 Å, b = 128.9 Å, c = 78.3 Å, β = 135.8) with two molecules in the asymmetric unit related by a noncrystallographic diad. The prolipase crystals are orthorhombic (P212121, with a = 79.8 Å, b = 115.2 Å, c = 73.0 Å) and also contain a pair of molecules in the asymmetric unit. Initial results of molecular replacement calculations using the refined coordinates of the related lipase from Rhizomucor miehei identified the correct orientations and positions of the protein molecules in the unit cells of crystals of both proenzyme and the mature form. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sustained-release fertilizer and two kinds of mulch treatments were tested to determine their effects on survival and growth of planted Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) on a sandy extremely nutrient-deficient site. Height, basal trunk diameter, dry weight, and concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were measured for each treatment. After two growing seasons, survival was very high in untreated controls (mean, 86%) and was not significantly increased by any treatment (significance was assessed at p = 0.05 throughout this work). Stem height and cross-sectional area doubled in unamended plots during the course of the study. Fresh mulch alone caused no additional increase in growth, compared with unamended plots. Decomposed mulch caused a slight but significant increase. Sustained-release fertilizer caused significant increases in height (threefold) and dry weight (approximately sixfold). Combined treatment with fertilizer and mulch gave significantly greater growth responses than did other treatments, increasing heights 4- to 5-fold, trunk cross-sectional areas 4-fold, and dry weights 11- to 21-fold over no-treatment controls. Tissue concentrations of N and P correlated with growth trends, with combinations of mulch and timed-release fertilizer providing the highest values. Though statistically different, the two mulch treatments were similar in their effects on tissue nutrient concentrations. When combined with fertilizer, undecomposed mulch stimulated increases in height and dry weight significantly more than did decomposed mulch. Thus, establishment of C. thyoides on low-nutrient sandy soils is improved by combined soil amendment with sustained-release nutrients and organic mulch.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Lipase activity from whole oat seeds is dependent upon calcium ion in a two phase olive oil-water system. No other tested ion can substitute for calcium. The lipolysis of melted tallow at 46°C was successfully conducted in the presence of calcium ion; the fatty acid fraction contained predominantly oleic acid.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Quantitative esterification of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 using oleic acid and Lipozyme was achieved in hexane. The effects of temperature, nature of acyl donor, substrate ratio, enzyme quantity and reaction time upon PEG esterification were examined. Nearly selective production of either PEG monooleate or PEG dioleate was achieved. Lipozyme was still 80% active after five reaction cycles.
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