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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; DISTINCT ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MESSENGER-RNA ; murine ; KERATINOCYTES ; EPIDERMAL DIFFERENTIATION ; ARACHIDONIC-ACID ; calcium gradient ; ENHANCING FACTOR ; epidermal barrier ; GROUP-II ; GROUP-V ; GROUP-X ; hyperproliferation ; INVITRO CULTIVATION ; LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT ; neonatal mouse ; NEONATAL MOUSE KERATINOCYTES ; PERMEABILITY BARRIER HOMEOSTASIS ; epidermis
    Abstract: The action of secreted phospholipases A(2) in skin is thought to be essential for epidermal barrier homeostasis. The incomplete knowledge of presence and functions of the novel secreted phospholipase A(2) subtypes in skin prompted us to explore their expression in epidermis and primary keratinocytes from murine neonatal skin. We detected secreted phospholipases A(2) -IB, -IIA, -IIC, -IID, -IIE, -IIF, -V, -X, and -XII. To study secreted phospholipase A(2) expression during epidermal differentiation, primary keratinocytes from the basal, suprabasal, and upper differentiated layers of neonatal mouse epidermis were obtained by density gradient centrifugation. mRNA for secreted phospholipases A(2) -IB, -IIE, -IIF, -V, and -XII-1 are mainly expressed in the upper differentiated layers, whereas the most prominent enzymes in the basal and suprabasal layers are secreted phospholipases A(2) -IIA, -IID, and -X. The mRNA for secreted phospholipase A(2) -IIC was found in all fractions. Immunohistochemical analysis in mouse skin sections reflected the mRNA distribution patterns in the different epidermal cell fractions. After in vitro induction of keratinocyte differentiation by increasing the calcium concentration of the medium, secreted phospholipases A(2) -IB, -IIE, -IIF, -V, and -XII-1 were upregulated, whereas secreted phospholipases A(2) -IIA, -IIC, -IID, and -X were mainly expressed in proliferating keratinocytes. The specific secreted phospholipase A(2) expression profile in the skin suggests a distinct function for each enzyme in the epidermis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12839576
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; Germany ; ENZYMES ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; RELEASE ; PATIENT ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; antibodies ; antibody ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; HUMAN KERATINOCYTES ; HEALTHY ; ARACHIDONIC-ACID ; calcium gradient ; epidermal barrier ; GROUP-V ; GROUP-X ; epidermis ; LOCATION ; HUMAN EPIDERMIS ; inflammation ; HUMAN SKIN ; PSORIASIS ; keratinocyte ; regulation ; SUBTYPE ; SUBTYPES ; VITAMIN-C ; COMPLETE SET ; GROUP IB ; GROUP-IIA
    Abstract: Secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)) expressed in the skin are thought to be involved in epidermal barrier homeostasis as well as in inflammation. We investigated the expression of the novel sPLA(2) subtypes in human skin at mRNA and protein levels in the epidermis and primary keratinocytes from healthy human skin, and in skin sections from patients with psoriasis, where the integrity of the epidermis is drastically affected. Immunofluorescence studies using specific antibodies for the different sPLA(2) enzymes show that sPLA(2)-IB, -IIF, and -X are predominantly expressed in suprabasal layers, whereas sPLA(2)-V and -IID are detected in the basal and spinous layers. sPLA(2)-IIA is weakly expressed, and sPLA(2)-IIE and XIIA are not detectable. Accordingly, in differentiated human primary keratinocyte cultures, the expression of sPLA(2)-IB, -IIF and -X was increased, whereas that of sPLA(2)-V and -IID was markedly decreased. In psoriatic skin, sPLA(2)-X was dramatically downregulated in the epidermis, whereas increased amounts of this enzyme together with sPLA(2)-IIA, -IID, and -IB appeared in the dermis. An enhanced release of these enzymes with the exception of sPLA(2)-IID was also observed after treatment of HaCaT keratinocytes with tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interferon-gamma. Treatment of HaCaT cells with sPLA(2)-X and -IB resulted in an increase in prostaglandin E-2 formation, suggesting a proinflammatory role of these enzymes during psoriasis. sPLA(2)-V completely disappeared. The differential locations of the sPLA(2) enzymes propose distinct roles of individual enzymes in skin
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15654975
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Wavelength modulation diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry is applied to the detection of atomic mercury. Transitions from metastable energy levels highly populated in a radio-frequency discharge are induced with laser diodes by use of nonlinear techniques. The wavelength of one strong transition at 365.119 nm with a high oscillator strength is obtained by sum frequency generation of two diode lasers. The cold vapor technique is used to transfer ionic into atomic mercury. The mercury in the vapor phase is transported by an argon stream into the discharge tube. From the time-dependent absorption signals detection limits of 100 ng/L are achieved at this state of research.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-055X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Prämedikation ; Präoperative Nahrungskarenz ; Kinderanästhesie ; Umfrage ; Midazolam ; Key words Premedication ; Preoperative fasting ; Pediatric anaesthesia ; Survey ; Midazolam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract This study evaluates the current practice of premedication and preoperative fasting in pediatric anaesthesia in Germany. A total of 90 questionnaires were mailed to randomly selected hospitals with departments or sections of anaesthesiology and pediatric surgery. 71 questionnaires were returned and analysed (reply rate 79%). 60% of the responding hospitals start premedication between the ages of 3 and 12 months and 32% between 1 and 2 years of age. Premedication ist most often given orally (64%), followed by rectal (29%) and intranasal (3%) routes. Midazolam is used by 96% of the respondents as the primary sedative premedication. Alternatively, promethazine and chloraldhydrate are most frequently used. Anticholinergic drugs are given routinely by 21% of the respondents. For the apprehensive child intramuscular ketamine is most often used (33%), followed by intranasal midazolam (22%), rectal midazolam (19%) and rectal thiopentone or methohexitone (13%). For children less than 1 year of age 63% of the hospitals restrict clear liquids 2 hours and 34% 3 or 4 hours before anaesthesia. 64% of the respondents require abstinence from milk for 4 hours and 30% for 6 hours prior to surgery. For children older than one year of age fasting period requirements for clear liquids were 2 hours (34%), 3 hours (27%), 4 hours (30%) and 6 hours (9%). For children over 1 year of age the majority allow solid food or milk up to 6 hours prior to anaesthesia (68% and 63%, respectively). The survey shows that premedication is started during the first two years of age by nearly all responding hospitals. Oral or rectal midazolam is the most frequently used premedication regimen. Preoperative fasting guidelines vary.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Zielsetzung und Methodik: Die Untersuchung soll Einblick in die gegenwärtige Prämedikationspraxis in der Kinderanästhesie in Deutschland geben. Hierzu wurden 90 deutsche Kliniken, die über Abteilungen für Anästhesie und Kinderchirurgie verfügen, zufällig ausgewählt und zum Prämedikationsregime und zur Handhabung der präoperativen Nahrungskarenz befragt. Ergebnisse: 71 Fragebögen (Rücklaufquote 79%) wurden zurückgesandt und ausgewertet. 60% der Kliniken führen eine Prämedikation schon im Alter von 3 bis 12 Monaten durch, 32% beginnen damit zwischen dem 1. und 2. Lebensjahr. An 64% der Kliniken wird die Prämedikation oral verabreicht, 29% bevorzugen die rektale Applikation. 96% der befragten Kliniken verwenden primär Midazolam. Alternativ werden am häufigsten Promethazin und Chloralhydrat (9 bzw. 7 Nennungen) verwendet. 21% der Kliniken verabreichen ein Anticholinergikum in fester Kombination mit der Prämedikationssubstanz. Beim „unkooperativen” Kind auf der Station oder in der OP-Schleuse ändern 84% der Kliniken ihr Prämedikationsregime. 33% der Kliniken gaben an, in diesem Fall auf Ketamin intramuskulär umzustellen, 22% wechseln zu Midazolam nasal. 32% der Kliniken weichen auf die rektale Applikation von Midazolam (19%) oder Methohexital bzw. Thiopental (13%) aus. Neben dem Prämedikationsregime wurden auch die Richtlinien zur präoperativen Nahrungskarenz für feste Nahrung, Milch und klare Flüssigkeit erfaßt. Bei Kindern unter einem Jahr fordern 63% der Kliniken eine 2stündige und jeweils 17% eine 3- bzw. 4stündige Nahrungskarenz für klare Flüssigkeit. 64% der Kliniken wenden bei Kindern unter einem Jahr für Milch eine 4stündige und 30% eine 6stündige Nahrungskarenz an. Bei Kindern über einem Jahr verteilen sich die Angaben zur Nahrungskarenz für klare Flüssigkeit auf 2 h (34%), 3 h (27%), 4 h (30%) und 6 h (9%). Für Kinder über 1 Jahr wird vom überwiegenden Teil der Kliniken eine 6stündige Nahrungskarenz für Milch (63%) und feste Nahrung (68%) gefordert. Schlußfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß mit der medikamentösen Prämedikation an nahezu allen befragten Kliniken bereits innerhalb der ersten zwei Lebensjahre begonnen wird. Midazolam, oral oder rektal verabreicht, stellt das dominierende Prämedikationsregime dar. Die präoperative Nahrungskarenz wird von den Kliniken unterschiedlich gehandhabt.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Massenspektrometrie, Lasermikrosonde ; Folien u. Partikel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Massenspektrometrie, Lasermikrosonde ; Spektren, Gleichgewichtsmodell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Untersuchung von Aerosolen ; Massenspektrometrie, Lasermikrosonde
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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