Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are key coordinators of the immune response, governing the choice between tolerance and immunity. DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells capable of presenting antigen on MHC molecules and priming CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. They form a heterogeneous group of cells based on phenotype, location, and function. In this review, murine DCs will be discussed regarding their function with special emphasis on their tissue distribution. Recent findings on DC homeostasis during cancer progression will be presented. Finally, the developmental pathways leading to DC differentiation from their precursors will be summarized. Given the vital importance of immune system research, the gathering of clear, consistent, and informative protocols involving the study of dendritic cells is paramount. Bringing the popular first edition fully up to date, Dendritic Cell Protocols, Second Edition presents protocols from experts in the field that cover the basics and more complex forays into the exploration of DC development and function, both in mice and humans. The first section of the volume involving humans explores topics such as the isolation of blood DC subtypes, primary skin Langerhans cells, and the generation of gene-manipulated human DCs with the inclusion of more clinically relevant methods as well, while the second section involving rodent models delves into DC and precursor generation in vitro, isolation ex vivo, disease models, as well as DC functions and properties. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series style, chapters include introductions to their respective subjects, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Dendritic Cell Protocols, Second Edition aims to become a bench-side handbook for both beginners and experts in the field of DC research and a long-term reference for some of the most popular methods put forward by those who lead the field.
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; IN-VIVO ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; METABOLISM ; MICE ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; PROTEIN-KINASE-C ; VITAMIN-D-RECEPTOR ; D-3 ; Intestine ; RESPONSE STEROID-BINDING ; TARGETED KNOCKOUT ; RECEPTOR/PDIA3/ERP57 ; 1.25D(3)-MARRS receptor/PDIA3/ERp57 ; Calcium absorption ; Phosphate absorption
    Abstract: We have used mice with a targeted knockout (KO) of the 1,25D(3)-MARRS receptor (ERp57/PDIA3) in intestine to study rapid responses to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25D(3)] with regards to calcium or phosphate uptake. Western analyses indicated the presence of the 1,25D(3)-MARRS receptor in littermate (LM) mice, but not KO mice. Saturation analyses for [(3)H]1,25D(3) binding revealed comparable affinities for the hormone in lysates from female and male LM, but a reduced B(max) in females. Binding in lysates from KO mice was absent or severely reduced. Enterocytes from KO mice failed to respond to hormone with regard to either ion uptake, while cells from LM mice exhibited an increase in uptake. For calcium uptake, the protein kinase (PK) A pathway mediated the response to 1,25D(3). Enterocytes from LM mice responded to 1,25D(3) with enhanced PKA activity, while cells from KO mice did not, although both cell types responded to forskolin. Calcium transport in LM mice in vivo was greater than in KO mice. Cells from LM and KO mice had cell surface VDR; however, anti-VDR antibodies had no effect on ion uptake. Unlike chicks, the PKC pathway was not involved in phosphate uptake. As in chicks and rats, intestinal cells from adult male mice lost the ability to respond to 1,25D(3) with enhanced phosphate uptake, whereas in female mice, uptake in cells from adults was greater than that observed in young mice. Finally, when we tested phosphate uptake in vivo, we found that young female mice had a much greater rate of transport than young male mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22546984
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Keywords: ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; CD8(+) T-CELLS ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; TOLERANCE ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; MOUSE MODEL ; INFECTIONS ; EXOGENOUS ANTIGEN ; HEPATITIS-B-VIRUS ; LIVER-DAMAGE
    Abstract: Viruses can escape cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immunity by avoiding presentation of viral components via endogenous MHC class I antigen presentation in infected cells. Cross-priming of viral antigens circumvents such immune escape by allowing noninfected dendritic cells to activate virus-specific CTLs, but they remain ineffective against infected cells in which immune escape is functional. Here, we show that cross-presentation of antigen released from adenovirus-infected hepatocytes by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated cross-primed effector CTLs to release tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which killed virus-infected hepatocytes through caspase activation. TNF receptor signaling specifically eliminated infected hepatocytes that showed impaired anti-apoptotic defense. Thus, CTL immune surveillance against infection relies on two similarly important but distinct effector functions that are both MHC restricted, requiring either direct antigen recognition on target cells and canonical CTL effector function or cross-presentation and a noncanonical effector function mediated by TNF.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22939982
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Abstract: During infection and inflammation, dendritic cells (DC) provide priming signals for natural killer (NK) cells via mechanisms distinct from their antigen processing and presentation functions. The influence of DC on resting NK cells, i.e. at steady-state, is less well studied. We here demonstrate that as early as 1 day after DC depletion, NK cells in naive mice downregulated the NKG2D receptor and showed decreased constitutive phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR. Subsequently, apoptotic NK cells appeared in the spleen concomitant with reduced NK cell numbers. At 4 days after the onset of DC depletion, increased NK cell proliferation was seen in the spleen resulting in an accumulation of Ly49 receptor-negative NK cells. In parallel, NK cell responsiveness to ITAM-mediated triggering and cytokine stimulation dropped across maturation stages, suggestive of a functional deficiency independent from the homeostatic effect. A role for IL-15 in maintaining NK cell function was supported by a gene signature analysis of NK cell from DC-depleted mice as well as by in vivo DC transfer experiments. We propose that DC, by means of IL-15 transpresentation, are required to maintain not only homeostasis, but also function, at steady-state. These processes appear to be regulated independently from each other.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27905484
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Keywords: GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; MODEL ; PROTEIN ; CELL-ADHESION ; ANGIOGENIC SWITCH ; ALTERNATIVELY ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES ; DYSPLASTIC NODULES ; SINUSOIDAL ENDOTHELIUM ; VESSEL COOPTION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumour that is characterized by extensive vascular remodelling and responsiveness to treatment with the anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. The aim was to study endothelial remodelling in HCC. METHODS: The murine inducible albumin-SV40-large T-antigen model and two tissue microarrays (TMA) with 295 tumourous and 83 peri-tumourous samples of 296 patients with HCC were analysed for expression of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC)-specific marker proteins, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, LYVE-1 and CD32b. RESULTS: LSEC marker proteins were sequentially lost during HCC progression in the murine HCC model being absent from tumour nodules larger than 800 mum in diameter. Similarly, the TMA analysis of human HCCs revealed loss of all four marker proteins in the majority of tumourous tissue samples. Preservation of LYVE-1 expression showed a significant correlation with low grading (G1). In corresponding peri-tumourous liver tissue, loss of all marker proteins was seen in a minor proportion of cases (34%) while the majority of cases retained expression of at least one of the marker proteins. Loss of stabilin-2 expression in peri-tumourous liver tissue of patients with HCC was significantly less likely to occur (38%) than loss of the other marker proteins (63-95%) and it was associated with significantly longer tumour-specific (P = 0.0523) and overall (P = 0.0338) survival. Loss of stabilin-2 may enhance survival in HCC by preventing endothelial-tumour cell adhesive interactions and microvascular invasion. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, endothelial transdifferentiation is a major pathogenic event in HCC development indicating a switch from vessel co-option/intussusceptive angiogenesis to sprouting angiogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23870052
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; ADHESION ; AGGREGATION ; PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASE ; ANTIPLATELET THERAPY ; ALPHA-IIB-BETA-3 ; HEMOSTASIS ; MEGAKARYOCYTE
    Abstract: The platelet protein disulfide isomerase called ERp57 mediates platelet aggregation, but its role in thrombus formation is unknown. To determine the specific role of platelet-derived ERp57 in hemostasis and thrombosis, we generated a megakaryocyte/platelet-specific knockout. Despite normal platelet counts and platelet glycoprotein expression, mice with ERp57-deficient platelets had prolonged tail-bleeding times and thrombus occlusion times with FeCl3-induced carotid artery injury. Using a mesenteric artery thrombosis model, we found decreased incorporation of ERp57-deficient platelets into a growing thrombus. Platelets lacking ERp57 have defective activation of the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin and platelet aggregation. The defect in aggregation was corrected by the addition of exogenous ERp57, implicating surface ERp57 in platelet aggregation. Using mutants of ERp57, we demonstrate the second active site targets a platelet surface substrate to potentiate platelet aggregation. Binding of Alexa 488-labeled ERp57 to thrombin-activated and Mn2+-treated platelets lacking beta 3 was decreased substantially, suggesting a direct interaction of ERp57 with alpha IIb beta 3. Surface expression of ERp57 protein and activity in human platelets increased with platelet activation, with protein expression occurring in a physiologically relevant time frame. In conclusion, platelet-derived ERp57 directly interacts with alpha IIb beta 3 during activation of this receptor and is required for incorporation of platelets into a growing thrombus.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24030382
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Abstract: Helminth infection is frequently associated with the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of immune responses to bystander antigens. We show that infection of mice with the chronic gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus drives rapid polyclonal expansion of Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) thymic (t)Tregs in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes while Foxp3(+)Helios(-)CD4(+) peripheral (p)Treg expand more slowly. Notably, in partially resistant BALB/c mice parasite survival positively correlates with Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) tTreg numbers. Boosting of Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) tTreg populations by administration of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2):anti-IL-2 (IL-2C) complex increased worm persistence by diminishing type-2 responsiveness in vivo, including suppression of alternatively activated macrophage and granulomatous responses at the sites of infection. IL-2C also increased innate lymphoid cell (ILC) numbers, indicating that Treg functions dominate over ILC effects in this setting. Surprisingly, complete removal of Tregs in transgenic Foxp3-DTR mice also resulted in increased worm burdens, with "immunological chaos" evident in high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and interferon-gamma. In contrast, worm clearance could be induced by anti-CD25 antibody-mediated partial depletion of early Treg, alongside increased T helper type 2 responses and without incurring pathology. These findings highlight the overarching importance of the early Treg response to infection and the non-linear association between inflammation and the prevailing Treg frequency.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26286232
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; MYELIN BASIC-PROTEIN ; PROTEOLYSIS ; EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ; NEUTROPHIL GELATINASE ; MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE EXPRESSION ; MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS LESIONS
    Abstract: Regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) plays a role in various physiological processes. To determine in vivo how unbalanced expression of these factors can promote or affect the course of pathologies, we knocked out the mouse gelatinase B gene by replacing the catalytic and zinc-binding domains with an antisense-oriented neomycin resistance gene. Adult gelatinase B-deficient mice and wild-type controls could be induced to develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with similar scores for neurologic disease, blood-brain barrier permeability, and central nervous system histopathology. However, whereas diseased control animals showed necrotizing tail lesions with hyperplasia of osteocartilaginous tissue, adult gelatinase B-deficient mice were resistant to this tail pathology. Gelatinase B-deficient mice younger than 4 weeks of age were significantly less susceptible to the development of EAE than were age matched controls and, even as they aged, they remained resistant to tail lesions. These data illustrate that gelatinase B expression plays a role in the development of the immune system and that, in ontogenesis, the propensity to develop autoimmunity is altered by the absence of this MMP.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 10587514
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Abstract: SUMMARY: The versatility of the bacteriophage Cre/LoxP system is dependent on the availability of a spectrum of tissue-specific Cre transgenic mice to address a host of biological questions. In this paper, we report on the generation of an inducible Tie2Cre transgenic mouse line that facilitates gene targeting exclusively in endothelial cells. The temporal manner of recombination is feasible through the use of a Cre-estrogen receptor fusion protein ER(T2) and was, in practical terms, achieved by feeding the animals the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen orally for 5 weeks. High efficiency of recombination was found in the vast majority of endothelial cell populations examined, as monitored by an EGFP reporter mouse line. Critically, no EGFP expression was observed in any uninduced mice. This inducible Cre line will be a very beneficial asset to investigating the role of endothelial specific genes in the adult mouse and to induce transgenes in the endothelium in an extremely efficient manner. genesis 33:191-197, 2002.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12203917
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VIVO ; SYSTEM ; liver ; MICE ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELLS ; TOLERANCE ; BONE-MARROW ; CANCER-CELLS ; NATURAL-KILLER-CELLS ; FRAGMENTS ; FAILURE ; ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY ; TUMOR CELLS ; ELIMINATION ; IMMUNE ESCAPE ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; ESCAPE ; CYTOKINE PRODUCTION ; TUMOR-CELL ; KUPFFER CELLS ; in vivo ; FRAGMENT ; CD8(+) T cell ; COLON-CARCINOMA CELLS ; liver sinusoidal endothelial cells ; NKT CELLS ; PERFORIN/GRANZYME PATHWAY ; sinusoidal endothelial cells
    Abstract: Development of tumor-specific T cell tolerance contributes to the failure of the immune system to eliminate tumor cells. Here we report that hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells followed by their elimination and local removal of apoptotic tumor cells in the liver leads to subsequent development of T cell tolerance towards antigens associated with apoptotic tumor cells. We provide evidence that liver sinusoidal. endothelial cells (LSEC) remove apoptotic cell fragments generated by induction of tumor cell apoptosis through hepatic NK1.1(+) cells. Antigen associated with apoptotic cell material is processed and cross-presented by LSEC to CD8(+) T cells, leading to induction of CD8(+) T cell tolerance. Adoptive transfer of LSEC isolated from mice challenged previously with tumor cells promotes development of CD8(+) T cell tolerance towards tumor-associated antigen in vivo. Our results indicate that hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells, followed by hepatic tumor cell elimination and local cross-presentation of apoptotic tumor cells by LSEC and subsequent CD8(+) T cell tolerance induction, represents a novel mechanism operative in tumor immune escape
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17039564
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...